TEACHING COMPETENCY AND TEACHER JOB SATISFACTION AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS

*Dr.N.V.S.Suryanarayana **Luciana.M.Z

True education, it must be noted at the outset, is a powerful force in bringing about desired change.  It is education and education alone that can bring about changes in knowledge, skills, attitudes, appreciations and understanding things around us.

            The definitions of Education formulated by a group of experts for the dictionary of education stressed two important things in education.  Firstly, education is a process, which should develop the required ability, attitude and other forms of behaviour for the full development of the personality.

            Undoubtedly any philosopher can comment that the ultimate aim of any education is to make a man of good character and useful citizen of the universe.  This of education we can achieve through the quality of education, quality of teachers and quality of teaching learning process.  Other things remaining, the quality of education largely learning transaction cannot be undertaken in vacuum but it is positively directed action, for which teachers are to be endeavor with satisfaction towards a job and the need of possessing the quality change-prone.  This is the right time to focus the significance of Teacher Job Satisfaction in relation to Teacher Change-Proneness among the Primary School Teachers.

            The keystone in the educational edifice is doubtless the teacher.  On him depends much more than any other, the progress and prosperity of children.  Nobody can effectively take his place or influence children in the manner and to the degree; it is possible, for him alone to do.  It is strongly believed that to be a teacher is to be the member of a holy order.

            The Secondary Education Commission (1953) defined that ‘we are however, convinced that most important factor in the comtemplated educational reconstruction is the teacher – his quality, his educational qualifications, his professional training and the place he occupies in the school as well as in the community.  The reputation of a school and its influence on the life of the community invariably depend on the kind of teachers working in it.’

            Similar views were expressed by the Indian Education Commission (1964 – 66) regarding the role of the teacher.  The commission opined that ‘of all different factors, which influence the quality of education and its contribution to national development, the quality, competence and character of teachers are undoubtedly the most significant’.

            ‘Schools are the nurseries of the Nation’ and ‘Teachers are the Architects of the future’ are no mere figurative expressions but truthful statements, as significant as they are suggestive.  Victories are won, peace is preserved, progress is achieved, civilization is built up and history is made in educational institutions, which are the seed beds of culture, where children in whose hands quiver the destiny of the future, are trained and from their ranks will come out when they grow up, statesman and soldiers, patriots and philosophers who will determine the progress of the land.  In their attitude to life and their approach to problems they will bear the imprint and the influence of the training they received at the hands of their teachers.  The teacher’s role is thus as important as his responsibility is onerous.

            ‘The good teacher must enlighten by his example, show wisdom in his discourse and restraint by his silence; he must help the willing with a welcoming encouragement; overcome the recalcitrant with a patient determination and check the exhibitionist with a reasonable superciliousness.  What he stands for, important for all times, is of paramount importance in the deepening blackout of spiritual and intellectual values by which our age is oppressed’ – C.E.M.Joad.

            The imperative that the entire process of teaching learning transaction depend on the efficiency of a teacher, who is in turn able to manifest potentialities of a child into actuality, be accepted with no hesitation.  Teaching learning process cannot be undertaken in vacuum but it is a positively directed action, for which teachers are to be endowed with teaching competency.  There has been an enormous amount of research which could answer to such questions as – what teaching behaviours are related to pupil out comes in different areas of classroom learning?  In what way they are related.  What are the characteristics of effective ad ineffective teachers?  How can teaching behaviours be incorporated in teachers during their training?

          Lot of research efforts have been directed on teaching competency but unfortunately much attention of research is not drawn to correlate teaching competency in relation to Teacher Job Satisfaction.  Rao, R.B. (1989) says that ‘the quality or effectiveness of teachers is considered to be associated with his satisfaction towards his profession, his satisfaction with his values.  Fontana, D. (1986) regarded that ‘if the teacher is too rigid or has a doctrinaire belief of that his methods are right and those of any one who disagrees with him are wrong, then he will be depriving his children of a range of possible learning experiences, to their disadvantage and to his own’.  Thus, it is clear that an effective and competent teacher will achieve the desired learning outcomes, provided if he satisfied in his profession.   But no significant efforts are found to study the competency in relation to job satisfaction among teachers.        

Teacher Job Satisfaction:

          The term Job Satisfaction is generally used in organizational endeavor in business management.  One of the senses signs of deteriorating conditions in an organization is low job satisfaction (Keith Devi, 1993).  Job Satisfaction is the favourableness or unfavourableness with which employees view their work (Bruneberg, 1976).  It signifies the amount of agreement between one’s expectations of the job and the rewards to the job provides.  Job satisfaction is concerned with a person or a group in the organization.  Job Satisfaction can be applicable more to parts of an individual’s job.  If each person is highly satisfied with his job then only it will be considered as group job satisfaction.

          Generally job satisfaction is related with number of employees variables such as turnover, absence, age, occupation and size of the organization in which he works.  The degree of satisfaction of job is largely depends on satisfaction of employee variables.  According to Garton (1976), employee’s satisfaction and morale are attitudinal variables that reflect positive or negative feelings about particular persons or situations, satisfaction when applied to work context of teaching seems to refer to the extent to which a teacher can meet individual, personal and professional needs as an employees (Strauss, 1974).

          Maslow (1970), Herberg (1959), Hay and Miskel (1978) and others proposed the theories on job satisfaction.  According to Maslow ‘a person’s satisfaction is determined by the fulfillment of his five levels of need’.  Herberg’s motivation hygiene theory assumes that two variables determine a person satisfaction.  (1) Internal factors like achievement, recognition etc., and (2) external factors such as salary and interpersonal relation.  Relationships Lartie (1975) believed that teaching continues to be rather limited in its available extrinsic rewards and that if teacher job satisfaction is to be increased efforts are to be made to improve the teaching situations.  According to Edward and others (1976) a high performance leads to high job satisfaction, which in turn becomes feedback to influence future performance.  Better performance leads to high rewards.  This improvement in satisfaction is because of employee’s feeling that they are receiving rewards in proportion to their performance on the other hand, if rewards one such as inadequate for one’s level of performance, dissatisfaction access.

          The Indian Education Commission (1964-66) also states that ‘nothing is more important than providing teachers best professional preparation and creating satisfactory conditions of work in which they carefully be effective.’  Sand Frankiewiz (1979) found a positive relationship between job satisfaction and effective teacher behaviour.  In the light of the above the theoretical framework of teacher job satisfaction may be considered as one of the important factors, which can enhance teaching competency.

Dimensions of Teacher Job Satisfaction:

          Of many dimensions, the researcher considered the following dimensions for measuring Teacher Job Satisfaction.  They are (1) Professional; (2) Teaching Learning; (3) Innovation; and – (4) Inter-personal relations.

          Professional related to job security and social prestige, moulding the young minds, getting appreciation from others, reaching problems of the students.

          Teaching learning refer to problems of the students, new situations, successfully managing the classes, students active participation in the classes, innovative technique in teaching, systematic plan of the work.

          Innovation relates to creativity, innovative technique in teaching, participation of cultural activities, co-curricular and social welfare activities.

          Inter-personal relations refer to relations with colleagues, parents, students, higher authorities or any personnel confined to school.

 

Measurement of Teacher Job Satisfaction:

          Job Satisfaction measuring procedures appear to be complicated at a first glance.  It seems simple to go to the employees and get data from them and then interpret.  But experiences are shown that careless procedural class can limit seriously the validity and usefulness of the survey.  Keen attention should be given to question construction, maintenance of anonymity for employees and sampling procedures (Donald and Charlies, 1975).  Even in Education field it is very difficult to measure the teacher job satisfaction.

          After careful observation of the literature it is fund that teacher’s job satisfaction can be measured mainly in two ways.  The first one is observation and interviews; and the other is use of tests including inventories and writing scales developed by some psychologists and educational researches like Crook, Maslach, Herhier and others, and Gaba Teacher Job Satisfaction Scale, Gupta and Srivatsava – teacher job satisfaction scale, Lodahl and Kejher’s Job involvement scale and Job Satisfaction scale developed by Dixit are some of the tools available for measuring job satisfaction.  However, they are context specific and may not be suitable for the present study.  Hence, the researcher developed a Teacher Job Satisfaction self-rating scale.

 

 

Teacher Change-Proneness:

          Change-Proneness, though quite recent in origin, with astonishing rapidity has become almost a catch word.  It is the tendency to accept anything which is new, novel, to be imbibed in their style of work.  It is the state of flux and dilemma brought about by devotion to a cause which may promote and result at expected rewards or fail to produce unexpected revolts (Uday Koundinya, 1999).

          Change is the order of day.  Everybody should acdept this truth and those changes too.  From ancient times, whenever a new discovery, a strange concept and a novel theory has proposed, there has been an ‘up-surge’ among others.  As Vivekananda rightly quoted ‘every new activity evidently has to pass through the three stages – bitter ridicule, sever opposition and final acceptance..  To accept that earth is round but not flat also requires much commotion in the minds of people.  Members of ‘Flat earth society opposed the truth severely.  Accepted truth are really difficult to be wiped off from the minds and the new changes in those areas really take a long time and they evidently be the butt of ridicule.

          Helio Centric theory took a long time to be accepted and it was severely opposed and bitterly refused by persons who accept Geo-centric theory by that time.  Atomic division in Chemistry, Darwin’s theory of Evolution in Bilogy, Sigmond Freud’s contributions to psychology all these are not at all exceptions for the basic truth.  This truth holds good even in social sciences and in cultural revival.  Social changes which totally alter tradition and cultural heritage evidently depend upon the sudden changes.  Sudden change but not slow transition, revolution but not evolution out right change but not graded stepwise modification is the predominant nature of change-proneness.  Many scientific truths which emerged as a result of eminent thinking by great scientists told to replace established facts up to the day and required long time to be accepted.  All these are clear vivid and valid examples.  Change or alter his behavior, attitudes, feelings and thoughts by being flexible rather restraining one-self to be rigid (Mukhopadyay, 1980).

          If at all some people who accept and invite such crucial, vital changes are not there in those days, these mightily truths may not have emerged out to be existent before us not.  ‘The tendency of possessing an inclination to new novel, strange, at times totally afresh, baffling inventions and innovations which can even shake and wipe of old existing traditional views is ‘change proneness’ (Uday Koundinya, 1996).  Millder (1967) for the first time has coined the concept of change-proneness is the congregations effect of curiosity, open mindedness and mental flexibility.  Miller rightly gave the comprehensive nature of the concept.  Radical change, innovativeness, tendency to inquire, being shrewd and proneness in thought, inquisiteness, all these traits facilitate change-proneness. 

Rigidity and Flexibility:

          The change-proneness evidently rely upon two opposing ideological aspects rigidity and flexibility.  A clear understanding of the two aspects rigidity and flexibility, will evidently help the investigator by throwing enormous light on the concept ‘change-proneness’.  The main hurdle to accept a new theory and invite a novel, sudden change is rigidity.   Warner defined ‘Rigidity’ as a lack of variability in a response or lack of adaptability in behavior.

          In life situations, some people are rigid in their behavior, some are not.  The same people, who are rigid in one type of situation, may be non-rigid in other situations.  For example some may be good at problem solving in the science laboratory but may not apply the problem solving techniques to their day to day social problems in the community (Klausner, 1972).  The dictionary meaning of rigidity is a personality trait characterized by inability to change one’s attitudes opinions or manner of adjustment (Atkinson).

          From various studies it seems that there are the few basic factors, which go to make up this rigid tendency.  Goldstein defined rigidity – as adherence to a performance that is inadequate for the present task i.e., a rigid term does not shift from one performance to another as required by the fresh to be fulfilled.  Research tries to relate problem solving rigidity with attitudinal dispositions of persons.  He stated that it is the inability to change one’s set or attitude.

          Wolfert opined – rigidity is restricted range of behavior as this type of rigidity prevails in human minds; they act as stumbling blocks and hurdles.  They approve one to have a new concept alter the type of learning, to invite change in the approaches.

          The opposing ideological aspect for rigidity is ‘flexibility is the personality trait characterized by ability to change one’s set, opinion line of thinking and process of adjustment.  Exhibiting inclination to a new and strange thing will be possible and it is due to flexibility.  In life situations, some people are flexible in their behavior some are not.  The people who are flexible on one occasion may not be much flexible on other occasions.  They at times with flexible out alter their responses and behavioural patterns.  But they decline at time to be flexible and then they stick to old ideologies.

          Flexibility is the outstanding quality of exhortative tendency and ability to change one’s set or attitude and opinions even one should be effective understanding line of thinking and even process of adjustment.  The concept of rigidity and flexibility and different definitions has been advanced by psychologists in accordance with their points.  The definitions may be prepared from psychomotor developmental, attitudinal intellectual and behavior aspects.

 

          Change-Proneness, though quite recent in origin with astonishing rapidity has become almost a catch word.  It can be defined as a tendency to accept anything which is new, novel to be imbibed in their style of work.  Change-Proneness is state of acceptance of new and creative ideas, which might at times create criticism and failure or result at appreciation and success.  It is a sense of satisfaction, commitment and success in the quest for new techniques, ideals and methods.  Change-Proneness is defined as a state of flux and dilemma brought about by devotion to a cause or a way of life which may promote to result at expected rewards or fails to produce unexpected revolts.

Teacher Change-Proneness:

          How a teacher should be, is a puzzling question.  Teacher at his best should be active not reactive, must strive rather than submit he must be author of his behavior rather than have ti dictated by authority.  The teacher should perform his duties in his own style.  The pattern of functioning of teachers reveals the existence of two categories of teachers.

 

Relation between Teacher Job Satisfaction Teacher Change-Proneness:

 

          Accomplishment of the goals of education and the objectives of teaching is possible when teachers are competent in teaching with satisfaction in their profession.  These two variables are conceptually independent and practically interactive.  B.R.Rao (1989) rightly pointed out that ‘the quality or effectiveness of a teacher is considered to be associated with his attitudes towards his profession, his satisfaction with his values and adjustment in the job and professional interest.’

          Similarly Dr.D.S.Kothari (1964-66) advocates ‘of all the different factors, which influence the quality of education and its contribution to national development, the quality, competency character and job satisfaction of teachers are undoubtedly the most significant’. 

Reviewed the previous investigations made on Teacher Job Satisfaction and Teacher Change-Proneness in India and Abroad.  These researchers (viz., investigations made on Job Satisfaction and Change-Proneness subjects) helped the investigator in planning, defining and delimiting the present research study.  These reviews have also helpful in deciding the procedure of the present study and the interpretation of the findings.

Teacher Job Satisfaction:

Studies Abroad:

Many research studies made on Teacher Job Satisfaction from different angles with different independent variables.

Anna F.Lobosco and Dianna L.Newman (1992) studied ‘Teaching Special Needs Populations and Teacher Job Satisfaction’.  Teachers’ perceptions of their jobs are strongly related to their perceptions of their students. This article confirms what one might expect: Working with students who are gifted and talented positively predicts job satisfaction, whereas working with students who have learning difficulties has a negative effect. Yet teachers ‘self-reports of general job satisfaction reverse when asked about how the reality of their teaching experience compares to ideal conditions. This has clear implications for urban school districts involved in massive mainstreaming efforts. Teacher preparation and the impending merger of general and special education are discussed. (Anna.Lobosco and Dianna L.Newman, ‘Teaching Special Needs Populations and Teacher Job Satisfaction’, Journal Urban Education, Vol.27, No.1, Pp.21-31, 1992, DOI:10.1177/ 0042085992027001003 (Sage Publications).

          Garett, R.M. (1999) studied ‘Teacher Job Satisfaction in Developing Countries’.  The study disclosed that the results from a literature review that examined teacher job satisfaction in developing versus developed nations. The review involved computer searches using keywords, manual searches of databases, follow-up of references from papers, requests to research institutions worldwide, and searches of dissertations. Overall, most work has been focused on secondary school teachers. Issues related to elementary teachers and principals have not received much attention. There was no generally agreed upon definition of job satisfaction or standardization of instruments used in the available literature. What little research had been done in developing nations was based on a set of theoretical assumptions that had been developed from findings in developed nations. The evidence available from mature educational systems identified a complex picture in which job satisfaction, itself a multi-faceted concept, was closely related to the other key factors of work life complexity and work centrality. Stress was produced, manifested, and coped with differently in different societies. The role played by stress in the normal working life of teachers in developing countries was a little-understood area (ERIC – ED459150, 1999-10-00,  U.S. Department of Education publication.)

Beverly M.Klecker, William E.Loadman (1999) studied ‘Male Elementary School Teachers’ Ratings of Job Satisfaction by Years of Teaching Experience’.  This study discloses that Teaching in American public schools in grades K-12 is largely a female pursuit. Discussions of the diversification of the American teaching force, have generally focused on two areas: (1) the under-representation of people of color in the teaching force and (2) the under-representation of females in administrative positions (Montecinos & Nielsen, 1997). Few researchers have chosen to focus on the need for more males in the teaching force. The scarcity of male teachers as student role models is a subject of concern at all levels, but it is of particular concern in the early grades (Wood and Hoag, 1993). National statistics of teacher demographics indicate that the national teaching population is 72% female and 28% male. However, the gender statistics are even more disproportionate at the elementary level. Fewer than 2% of pre-K/Kindergarten and 14.6% of elementary teachers are male (Snyder & Hoffman, & Geddes, 1996). This lack of male role models in the early years of schooling may be a limiting factor in recruiting more males into this profession. ( Questia e-Journal, Vol.119, 1999).

Zembylas, Michalinos; Papanastasiou, Elena (2004) studied ‘Job satisfaction among school teachers in Cyprus’.  The research report examines job satisfaction and motivation among teachers in Cyprus – a small developing country in the Eastern Mediterranean. An adapted version of the questionnaire developed by the “Teacher 2000 Project” was translated into Greek and used for the purposes of this study that had a sample of 461 K-12 teachers and administrators. The findings showed that, unlike other countries in which this questionnaire was used, Cypriot teachers chose this career because of the salary, the hours, and the holidays associated with this profession. The study analyzes how these motives influence the level of satisfaction held by the Cypriot teachers. (Journal of Educational Administration, Emarald Publishing Ltd., Volume 42, Number 3, 2004 , pp. 357-374(18).

Ronit (2001) studied ‘The Influence of Leadership Style on Teacher Job Satisfaction’.  This study disclosed the effects of principals’ leadership style (transformational or transactional), principals’ decision-making strategy (autocratic versus participative), and teachers’ occupation perceptions on teacher satisfaction from the job. More specifically, it attempts to find out how much of the variation in teachers’ job satisfaction can be attributed to their perceptions of their occupation, as compared to their perceptions about their principals’ leadership style and decision-making strategy. A quantitative questionnaire using Likert-type scales was administered to 930 teachers in Israeli schools, of whom 745 responded. Path analysis was used to explain teacher job satisfaction by the exogenous variables. The most salient finding was that teachers’ occupation perceptions strongly affected their satisfaction. Principals’ transformational leadership affected teachers’ satisfaction both directly and indirectly through their occupation perceptions. Implications of the study are discussed in relation to supervisors and principals, as well as to policy makers at the government level.  (Ronit Bogler, ‘The Influence of Leadership Style on Teacher Job Satisfaction’, Journal of Educational Administration Quarterly, Vol.37, No.5, Pp.662-683, DOI:10.1177/00131610121969460).

Judith Kleinfeld; G. Williamson and Mc.Diarmid, (1986) studied The Job Satisfaction of Alaska’s Isolated Rural Teachers with their work life’.  This study examines the sources of job satisfaction and dissatisfaction among 304 teachers randomly selected from small isolated schools in rural Alaska. These teachers are highly satisfied about their relationship with students and their pay benefits. Large numbers of teachers are dissatisfied, however, with community amenities, their students’ academic progress, and especially, school district management. Most of these teachers teach in Indian and Eskimo villages; yet they feel that interorganizational relationships with the district office cause them more stress than cross-cultural relationships with the students and community. In many isolated rural schools, high teacher turnover erodes the quality of education rural students receive. Hartrick, Hills, arid Wallin [3] found that six out of ten teachers employed in rural British Columbia were not teaching in the same district five years later. A recent study [5] of teachers in rural Alaska found that majorities have taught at their present schools less than two years.  Since the sources of teacher dissatisfaction depend on the specific conditions of the schools in which they teach, research on rural teachers’ satisfaction with their work life should describe with some care the particular community and school context.  Most teachers in rural Alaska work in isolated Eskimo or Indian villages of a few hundred residents. While a handful of these communities are on the highway system, most are accessible only by light aircraft. These small communities offer few of the amenities teachers can take for granted elsewhere. While some school districts or communities provide modern teacher housing, in others teachers must rent cabins or plywood shacks.  The conclusions of the study stated that Alaska’s rural teachers to express satisfaction with their pay and benefits and to express discontent with the hardships of living in isolated Native villages without many amenities.  Similarly, the number of teachers who express dissatisfaction with the distant district office was unexpected. (Research in Rural Education, Volume-3, November 3, 1986, USA, e-publication).

Chung-Lim Ho and Wing-Tung Au  of Chinese University of Hong Kong (2006) studied  ‘Teaching Satisfaction Scale’ to measure Job Satisfaction of Teachers in China.  In the present study proposes a teaching satisfaction measure and examines the validity of its scores. The measure is based on the Life Satisfaction Scale (LSS). Scores on the five-item Teaching Satisfaction Scale (TSS) were validated on a sample of 202 primary and secondary school teachers and favorable psychometric properties were found. As hypothesized, teaching satisfaction as measured by the TSS correlated positively with self-esteem but negatively with psychological distress and teaching stress. The TSS scores had good incremental validity for psychological distress and teaching stress beyond earlier Job Satisfaction Scales. The TSS offers a simple, direct, reliable, and valid assessment of teaching satisfaction. Future development of the TSS is discussed (Educational and Psychological Measurement (e-Journal),Vol. 66, No.1,172-185(2006), DOI: 10.1177/00131644052785 73).

Sonnie S.Billingsley and Lawrence H.Cross (1992) studied ‘Predictors of Commitment, Job Satisfaction and Intent to Stay in Teaching: A Comparison of General and Special Educators’. The primary purpose of this study was to identify variables that influence teachers’ commitment and job satisfaction among both general and special educators. A secondary purpose was to determine the extent to which these commitment and satisfaction variables influence teachers’ intent to stay in teaching. A questionnaire using primarily extant measures was sent to a random sample of 558 special educators and 589 general educators in Virginia. Completed questionnaires were received from 83% of both samples. Cross validated regression results suggest that work related variables, such as leadership support, role conflict, role ambiguity, and stress, are better predictors of commitment and job satisfaction than are demographic variables. Generally, the findings were similar for general and special educators. Implications for educational agencies are addressed (Sonnie S.Billingsley and Lawrence H.Cross, ‘Predictors of Commitment, Job Satisfaction and Intent to Stay in Teaching: A Comparison of General and Special Educators’, Journal of Special Education, USA, Vol.25, No.4, Pp.453-471, DOI:10.1177/ 002246699202500404).

Butt, Graham & Lance, Ann (2005) studied ‘Secondary Teacher Workload and Job Satisfaction: Do Successful Strategies for Change Exist?.  This report analyses the views of secondary school teachers involved in the Transforming the School Workforce: Pathfinder Project–a project designed to address issues of teacher workload and job satisfaction. The initiative was launched in 2002 by the Department for Education and Skills (DfES) to enable 32 pilot schools to explore ways in which they might restructure their working practices and reduce teacher workload. Funding was provided for schools to benefit from consultancy support, the training of head teachers, the employment of additional teaching assistants, the provision of ICT hardware and software, the training of bursars/school managers and for capital build projects. Here we concentrate on the evaluation of the Pathfinder Project with particular reference to possible changes in workload and job satisfaction of secondary teachers in the 12 secondary schools involved in the project. The reported weekly and holiday hours worked by secondary teachers are analyzed across the duration of the project, as are patterns of evening and weekend work. Teachers’ views on job satisfaction are also analyzed in conjunction with their perspectives on workload, culminating in a discussion of their solutions to the problems of excessive workload. The relationship between teacher workload, job satisfaction and work-life balance is explored within the context of the future modernization of the entire school workforce (Butt, Graham; Lance, Ann, ‘Secondary Teacher Workload and Job Satisfaction: Do Successful Strategies for Change Exist?, Journal of Educational Management Administration & Leadership, Vol.33, No.4, Pp.401-422, 2005)

Studies in India:

          The investigations made in this country on Teacher Job Satisfaction on various nook corners with the help of demographic variables by using the statistical procedure to obtain the results according to their needs.

          Lavinga (1974) took a sample of 1600 and find that female teachers were more satisfaied than male teachers.

          Muthaiah (1981) and Meera Dixit (1984) findings confirms the same.

          In the studies of Virachari, S (1987), Bhandarkar (1980), Gupta (1980), Girens Rebay (1988), primary, secondary school teachers and college teachers are investigated.  Bhandarkar, Rebay found a positive relation between age, experience of Job satisfaction.  There is no significant difference to sex or level of education and job satisfaction.  Regarding pay and supervision the teachers are dissatisfied.  Gupta states that marital status; age and experience were not associated with job satisfaction.  Rebay states that not only the gender, marital status, age, qualifications but also the location of the schools have no relationship with job satisfaction and at the same time the experience and salaries of the teachers have a significant relationship with job satisfaction.

          While studying job satisfaction of graduate teachers in Coimbatore, Sekar, G. and Ranganathan (1988) found that most of the teachers were satisfied with their nature of work, personnel policies, salary, personal achievement and their relationship with superiors and colleagues, working conditions in schools, concluded that caste, place of work and mother tongue were significantly related to job satisfaction.  Male graduate trained teachers, single-family teachers, more experienced and government school-teachers, were more satisfied than others; age and marital status, however, had no relationship with job satisfaction.  Economic and political values were found to be correlates of job satisfaction.

          Clemence, S.M. (1989) found that role conflict affected job satisfaction of women teachers but social dimension of value influenced their job satisfaction rather favourably.

          Naik, G.C. (1990) found that ad hoc teaching assistants of the M.S. University, Baroda, were satisfied with their jobs mainly because of their favourable attitude towards the teaching profession, financial consideration and the facilities which they were getting for further studies; marital status, age, experience and gender did not affect their level of job satisfaction; leadership qualities of heads of institutions promoted job satisfaction, and group goals and objectives were essential parameters in determining the job satisfaction of teachers.  Sex, experience and background variables had no bearing on job satisfaction.

          Ray, S. (1992) concluded that the mental health of teachers was positively correlated with job satisfaction and attitude towards pupils. 

          Reddy B.P., (1989) in his study found that over-qualified primary schoolteachers had low job satisfaction while teachers younger in age had higher level of job satisfaction, which had positive correlation with attitude towards teaching and job involvement.

          Saxena, N. (1990) while studying a sample of higher secondary schoolteachers in Madhya Pradesh, did not find any difference due to gender, stream (science or arts), experience and other variables on job satisfaction.

          Where Naseema (1994) studied Teaching competency of Secondary School physical science teachers in relation to their satisfaction of teaching the subject.  Naseema and Ayshabi (1995) studied satisfaction as a predictor of perceived teaching competence. 

          Sinha and Prabhat (1993) examined the relationship of job satisfaction with ego strength of secondary school teachers. 

          Sudhira (1994) investigated teacher job satisfaction and Job Stress of Secondary School Physical Education Teaches.

          Annamalai Abraham (1999) studied job satisfaction and teacher effectiveness of college teachers.  Godiyal and Srivastava (1995) made a study of teachers’ work involvement, job involvement and their job satisfaction.  Baruah studied role conflict and its correlation with job satisfaction of secondary school women teachers in Dibrugarh of Assam. 

          Gupta (1995) made a correlational study of job satisfaction and their teaching effectiveness.

          Annamalai (1999) studied job satisfaction of school teachers in relation to certain selected variables viz., (i) attitude towards administration and teaching and (ii) adjustment.

          Butt (1997) made a correlational study of job stress, job involvement and job satisfaction.

          Chandraiah (1994) attempted to study job satisfaction of college teachers as an effect of age.

          Dixit (1993) aimed to analyze the effect of sex on different factors – intrinsic (Physical and Psychological) and extrinsic (salary etc., benefits) – job satisfaction among primary teachers.

          Shahapur et al. (1996) looked into the satisfaction of different need areas (Physical, Social, Esteem, Autonomy and Self-actualization) in relation to the two styles of leadership (initiating structure and consideration) among college teachers in Mysore.

          Kulsun (1998) wanted identify whether job satisfaction of school teaches varies with their perception of school organizational climate or not.

          Begum (1994) examined the relationship of job satisfaction of Kerala college Teachers with some socio-demographic and personality variables.  Das and Panda (1995) aimed at finding out the job satisfaction of college and higher secondary teachers in terms of their sex and experience.  Ausekar (1996) compared the job satisfaction among teachers working in government and private secondary schools.  Thaker (1996) designed to know whether the government and non-government secondary school Principals differ in their job satisfaction.

          Thaker (1996) studied the relationship between the Saurashtra secondary school Principals’ job satisfaction and gender, age, experience, qualification, marital status, type of schools, residential area and geographical locale. 

          Reddy and Babu (1995) analyzed the level of job satisfaction of male and female teachers of residential and non-residential schools.  Jyothi and Reddy (1998) attempted to study the professional satisfaction of teachers working in the schools for the hearing impaired in Andhra Pradesh.  Ratnappa (1998) studied the personal and professional satisfaction of women teachers of schools, colleges and universities in Andhra Pradesh.

TEACHER CHANGE-PRONENESS:

          In the post independence era, bringing change in educaton and revising qualitative improvement has been a major concern of the educational planners and administrators, with this intention quite a few new institutes and organizations were established with considerable investments at national and state levels.  As result they designed and diffused quite a large number of innovations in education.  The change was not, however, commensurate with the number of innovations and investments therein.  Hence only stray number of researches prevails in this field related to the concept of the change-proneness.  Change-Proneness indicates a person’s mental orientation towards change.  It is more a global concept than either of ‘cosmopolitans’ or ‘open mindednesses’, which are often used in early research studies with different connotation and in totally varied context.

Studies Abroad:

Susan L.Swars and Others (2009) studied ‘A Two-Dimensional Model of Teacher Retention and Mobility’.  In this mixed-methods study is a teacher-initiated, collaborative inquiry involving a professional development school (PDS) and a university. The investigation focused on teachers’ perceptions of teacher retention and mobility at their PDS. Participants were 134 teachers at a high-needs elementary school with data sources including surveys, interviews, and open-ended questionnaires. The findings clustered around two primary dimensions: (a) congruency of teachers’ beliefs and practices with organizational norms and (b) teachers’ relational needs and administrators’ willingness and ability to meet such needs. Although this study affirmed many of the findings in the extant literature, it also challenged others—namely, the links between teacher turnover and workplace conditions, student body characteristics, and student achievement. The recursive research design enabled the researchers to make accommodations in methodology in response to teachers’ and administrators’ concerns. The researchers documented these modifications and make recommendations for conducting inquiry in a PDS. (Susan L.Swars; Barbara Meyers; Lydia C.Mays and Brian Lack of Georgia State University, USA, ‘A Two-Dimensional Model of Teacher Retention and Mobility’Journal of Teacher Education, Vol.60, No.2, Pp.168-183, 2009, Sage Journals (online) DOI:10.1177/0022487108329116)

Andrew J.Wayne and others (2008) studied ‘Experimenting with Teacher Professional Development: Motives and Methods’.  According to the opinion of the authos that a strong base of research is needed to guide investments in teacher professional development (PD). This article considers the status of research on PD and articulates a particular direction for future work. Little is known about whether PD can have a positive impact on achievement when a program is delivered across a range of typical settings and when its delivery depends on multiple trainers. Despite a consensus in the literature on the features of effective PD, there is limited evidence on the specific features that make a difference for achievement. This article explains the benefits offered by experiments in addressing current research needs and—for those conducting and interpreting such studies—discusses the unique methodological issues encountered when experimental methods are applied to the study of PD.  (AndrewJ.Wayne,American Institutes for Research, Washington DC,; Kwang Suk Yoon; Peizhu; Stephanie Cronen and Michael S.Garet, ‘Experimenting with Teacher Professional Developmet: Motives and Methods’, Journal of Educational Researcher, Vol.37, No.8, Pp.469-479, 2008, Sage Publications (online) DOI:10.3102/0013189X08327154)

Gregory J.Palardy and Russel W.Rumberger(2008) studied ‘Teacher Effectiveness in First Grade: The importance of Background Qualifications, Attitudes, ad Instructional Practices for Student Learning’.  This study uses Early Childhood Longitudinal Study data to investigate the importance of three general aspects of teacher effects—teacher background qualifications, attitudes, and instructional practices—to reading and math achievement gains in first grade. The results indicate that compared with instructional practices, background qualifications have less robust associations with achievement gains. These findings suggest that the No Child Left Behind Act’s “highly qualified teacher” provision, which screens teachers on the basis of their background qualifications, is insufficient for ensuring that classrooms are led by teachers who are effective in raising student achievement. To meet that objective, educational policy needs to be directed toward improving aspects of teaching, such as instructional practices and teacher attitudes.  (Gregory J.Palardy and Russell W.Rumberger, University of California, ‘Teacher Effectiveness in First Grade: The importance of Background Qualifications, Attitudes and Instructional Practices for Student Learning’, USA, Journal of Educational Evaluation and Polic Analysis, Vol.30, No.2, Pp.111-140, 2008, Sage Publications (online) DOI:10.3102/0162373708317680)

Karen Douglas (2009) studied ‘Sharpening our Focus in Measuring Classroom Instruction’.  According to the opinion of the Author that this commentary highlights convergent themes from four articles in the March 2009 issue of Educational Researcher on measuring classroom instruction. Classroom instruction is a complex enterprise that occurs at the intersection of teachers, students, and texts within the surrounding classroom, school, and community environments. Progress in studying the complexity of classroom instruction on a large scale relies on our ability to pose research questions at the appropriate levels of analysis and to attempt to answer the questions using rigorous methods. These articles contribute to this task by sharing theoretical and practical viewpoints based on systematic programs of mixed methods research. The value of this body of research is reinforced through evidence of its impact on teaching practices and student learning.  (Karen Douglas, International Reading Association, ‘Sharpening Our Focus in Measuring Classroom Instruction’, Journal of Educational Researcher, Vol.38, No.7, Pp.518-521, 2009, Sage Publications (online) DOI:10.3102/0013189X09350881)

C.Day; P.Sammons and Q.Gu (2008) studied ‘Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Methodologies in Research on Teachers’ lives, Work and Effectiveness: From Integration to Synergy’. The authors of this article discuss how a mixed-methods research team designed and conducted a 4-year study (Variations in Teachers’ Work and Lives and Their Effects on Pupils) that tracked 300 teachers in 100 schools in England over a 3-year fieldwork period. The authors discuss processes that led to new knowledge. Although mixed methods are becoming more popular, few published accounts describe in detail how researchers have moved beyond the use and integration of mixed methods to arrive at more synergistic understandings. The advantage of synergistic approaches is their consideration and combination of a greater range of data, resulting in more nuanced, authentic accounts and explanations of complex realities. (C.Day; P.Sammons and Q.Gu, University of Nottingham, ‘Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Methodologies in Research on Teachers’ lives, Work and Effectiveness: From Integration to Synergy’, Journal of Educational Researcher, Vol.37, No.6, Pp.330-342, 2008, Sage Publications (online) DOI:10.3102/ 0013189X08324091)

Kristie Jones Newton (2008) studied ‘An Extensive Analysis of Preservice Elementary Teachers’ Knowledge of Fractions’.  The study of preservice elementary teachers’ knowledge of fractions is important because fractions are notoriously difficult to learn and teach. Unfortunately, studies of preservice teachers’ fraction knowledge are limited and have focused primarily on division. The present study included all four operations to provide a more comprehensive understanding of this knowledge. Because knowledge is complex, it was examined in five ways: computational skill, basic concepts, word problems, flexibility, and transfer. To further capture the complexity of knowledge, solution methods were examined for patterns that might reveal understandings and misconceptions. Data were gathered before and after a course designed to deepen pre-service teachers’ knowledge. Quantitative and qualitative shifts occurred during the semester, but flexibility and transfer were low. Implications for teacher education are discussed (Kristie Jones Newton, Temple University, An Extensive Analysis of Pre-service Elementary Teachers’ Knowledge of Fractions’, American Educational Research Journal, Vol.45, No.4, Pp.1080-1110, 2008, Sage Publications (online) 10.3102/ 0002831208320851)

 

Nanyang Technological University (2006) studied ‘Challenging the Paradign: Notes on developing an Indigenized Teacher Education Curriculum’.  As per the Author that while considerable attention is being paid to reforming education systems to prepare students for the challenges of globalization and a knowledge-based economy, teacher education models in the Asia Pacific remain insufficiently critiqued. There is an urgent need to rethink teacher education as, in spite of decades of investment and development, major problems of inequality, attrition, incomplete and inadequate learning continue to blight our education systems. It is proposed that teacher education needs to become more culturally authentic as teaching and learning are best viewed as culturally scripted activities. The utilization of indigenous knowledge will be central to this task. The article concludes with some suggestions for how the task may be started.  (S.Gopinathan, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, ‘Challenging the Paradign: Notes on developing an Indigenized Teacher Education Curriculum’, Journal of Improving Schools, Vol.9, No.3, Pp.261-272, 2008, Sage Publications: DOI: 10.1177/1365480206069020)

Lorenzo Cherubini (2009) studied ‘Reconciling the Tensions of New Teachers’ Socializaton into School Culture: A Review of Research’.  The study reviews the research from 1969 to 2005 describing pre-service candidates’ transition from student teacher to professional educator during their socialization into school culture. Despite the educational reforms in Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom and Australia over the last three decades, this review argues that new teachers experience many of the same initial concerns that have been documented about beginning teachers for over 35 years. The paper also examines the core themes that emerged in each of the respective periods identified in the review, including: teachers’ perceptions of self (1969 to mid 1980s); professional sustainability (mid 1980s to late 1990s); and emerging identity during the process of their socialization into school culture (2000 to 2005). Based on this examination, the paper suggests that the tension between new teacher identity formation and socialization into school culture can be reconciled by a post-industrial perspective of how individuals formulate concepts of self. (Lorenzo Cherubini, Brock University, Canada, ‘Reconciling the Tensios of New Teachers’ Socialization into School Culture: A Review of the Research’, Journal of Issues in Educational Research, Vol.19, No.2, 2009.

Studies in India:

          Rao, D.S. (1967) made an attempt by conducting a study ‘An inquiry into the factors that contributes to the promotion or inhibition of educational innovations’ listed out a few factors, which influence and govern educational innovations.

          Aggarwal (1974) made his first effort in his direction by preparing a text on ‘innovation proneness’ in the line of Miller she found the clues on the text on innovative proneness as related significantly to various dimensions of teacher’s morale.

          Singh, T. (1977) in his doctoral study thoroughly discussed about adoption and dis-contribution of innovations in the preparation of secondary school teachers.  In India and listed out a few strategies to be adopted for bringing innovations which enable effective preparation of secondary school teachers who were to be flexible and adaptable and impact effective instruction.

          Mukhopadhyaya and Saxena (1980) in their research study ‘the factors contributing to teacher’s change proneness’ concluded that change-proneness has been found to be related significantly and positively to urban back ground, teachers relation with principal, satisfaction in teaching, rapport among teachers, perceived leadership behavior of the principal, attitude toward teaching profession, perceived status of teachers and job satisfaction.

          Bakshi, S.T. (1980) made an attempt to identify factors which hindered school improvement programme and to examine the possible relationships of some selected variables to the degree of adapatability of school.  He selected change-proneness of the school teachers and principals are of the variables along with organizational climate, teacher morale and leadership behavior of the principal.  The major observation was – school climate, teacher’s moral and change-proneness of teachers and principals did not significantly influence the school adaptability.

          Vinaitheerthan (1981) in his doctoral thesis concluded age of teachers, sex,  teaching experience and professional training influenced the state of dissonance of innovations, controlled climate significantly contributed to teaching learning process attitude to innovation, change-proneness and intimacy.  Open climate showed significant relationship with complexity conversation and change-proneness.

          Mukhopadhyaya (1981) with the help of multivariate analysis concluded that the change proneness of a teacher can be predicted to the tune of more than 59% variance by set of above mentioned variables.

          Rajkamal (1982) substantially listed out the factors affecting diffusion of innovations in secondary schools.

          In the field of research in the area of change-proneness, Mukhopadhyaya (1982) name was to be definitely reckoned with.  He constructed and standardized tool Mukhopadhyaya’s change-proneness inventory (MCPI).  The tool was administered on 60 secondary school teachers.  He computed split half reliability with the help of Spearman-Brown Prophecy formula.  It was noticed to be 0.82, which is significant 0.01 levels.  Chi-square test was carried out soon a 2 (innovative)/non-innovative schools, 3 good/moderate/poor scores of change-proneness).  Contingency table was found significant at 0.05 levels.  This research finding clearly indicates that change-proneness of teachers successfully differentiate innovative schools from the non-innovative schools.

          Dr.Udayagiri Nageswara Rao, in his study on Change-proneness among the primary school teachers as determining factor to meet the needs of hard-to-reach pupils concluded.  This study reveal that male teachers are highly change prone than female teachers; urban teachers are more change prone than their counterparts i.e., rural teachers.  Residential school teachers are more change-prone than non-residential school teachers.

          Strangely post-graduate trained teachers lag behind trained graduate teachers.  Teaching working in Municipal schools is ahead in possession of change-proneness than Missionary school teachers and teachers working in Mandal Parishad schools.

          The four aspects of CPDQ differ in the extent of influencing change-proneness.  An inclination to change-proneness will enhance teacher competency and creativity if commitment and creativity are associated with a favourable attitude in accepting new strategies put forth by others and which are innovated and initiated by themselves, then the exemplary teacher can easily dart into the minds of individual making reaching hart-to-reach pupils not a myth but a reality and possibility.

The extensive review of related literature pertaining to the two variables teaching competency, teacher adjustment and teacher attitude and their inter-relationship is presented in the preceding pages.  The researchers after a thorough study of the reported past studies, smelt some gaps and deficiencies.

Even though there is lot of research on teaching competency there is much scope for further research.  It is found from the extensive view of related research that many studies are conducted on Teacher Job Satisfaction, but little effort is made to study the relationship between Teacher Job Satisfaction and Teacher Change-Proneness.

The opinion of Indian Education Commission (1964-66) that of all the different factors, which influence the quality of education and its contribution to national development, the quality, competence, character and job satisfaction of teachers are undoubtedly the most significant, is the real inspiration behind the present study.  Hence the present study is intended to explore relationship between Teacher Job Satisfaction and Teacher Change-Proneness. Definitions of terms used:

          In the present study the present investigator is concerned with Teacher Job Satisfaction and Teacher Change-Proneness and definitions of these constructs are dealt with.

 

Teacher:

          The term ‘Teacher’ used in this present study is refers to the Teachers working in Primary Schools in Vizianagaram District only.

 

Teacher Job Satisfaction:

          Teacher Job Satisfaction in this study has been defined as a ‘Job satisfaction’ is an affective attitude – (a) feeling relative like (or) dislike toward something).  Job Satisfaction emerges as an employee gives more and more information about the work place.  So the satisfaction played a vital importance in presenting relationship between the individual teacher and his environment in respect of four dimensions viz., Professional, Teaching Learning, Innovation, Interpersonal relations.  The influence on the Teacher in relations to head of the institute, colleagues and students in the school and his activities, relations and participation in the society aspects are occupied the paramount importance in the present study.

Teacher Change-Proneness:

          The concept of ‘Change-Proneness’ is the congregations effect of curiosity, open mindedness and mental flexibility.  According to Miller (1967) gave the comprehensive nature of the concept – radical change, innovativeness, tendency to inquire, being shrewd and proneness in thought, inquisiteness, all these traits facilitate change-proneness.  In the present concept – Innovativeness refers the new ideas keeping the time to time changing situations; Hesitating nature refers the open mindedness expressing unwillingness or action; Considerations refers the accepting new ideals or actions and implementation of strategies with reference to changes occurred day by day; and Acceptance of help is refers to associate with the individual keeping the changing situations prevailed and possessing their change prone in terms of needs. 

 

Problem:

          The problems posed in this study are to establish reliability and validity of Teacher Job Satisfaction and Teacher Change-Proneness – 

(1) Development of suitable tool to measure the Teacher Job Satisfaction.

(2) Development of suitable tool to measure the Teacher Change-Proneness.

(3) Finding out the relationship between Teacher Job Satisfaction and Teacher Change-Proneness.

Objectives of the Study:

          Studying the significance of relationship between Teacher Job Satisfaction and Teacher Change-Proneness.

          Studying the significance of relationship between the dimensions of Teacher Job Satisfaction.

          Studying the significance of relationship between the dimensions of Teacher Change-Proneness.

          Studying the significance of difference between various demographic variables in respect of Teacher Job Satisfaction and Teacher Change-Proneness.

          Studying the significance of difference between high and low Teacher Job Satisfaction in relation to Teacher Change-Proneness.

          Studying the significance of difference between high and low Teacher Change-Proneness. in relation to Teacher Job Satisfaction.

 

Hypotheses:

          Modern investigators are unique agreed that whenever hypothesis possible research come to light that it should be form a hypothesis only.  According to W.Stanely Jevons defined the importance of hypothesis as it serves a sort of guiding light in the world of darkness.  In the words of Deobold D.Van Dalen a hypothesis serves as powerful beacon that lights the research worker.  While Carter V.Good thinks by guiding the investigator the hypothesis serves as the investigators’ ‘eye’ in seeking answers as to tentatively adopted generalization.  While Travers (ed.) discloses that ‘postulates may be considered are fore-runners of laws.  As more and more evidence concerning the validity of postulates is accumulated through to the accepted be called laws.

          In the present study the investigator felt the need of the hypotheses to be framed before pursuing the study as they act as the beacon lights, which illuminate the part of research area and facilitate the investigator to pass on through turbulent walkers.  Accordingly the investigator has proposed the following hypotheses for testing the tools with reference to the above objectives.

 

Major Hypotheses:

(1)     There is no significant relationship between Teacher Job Satisfaction and Teacher Change-Proneness.

(2)     There is no significant relationship between various dimensions of Teacher Job Satisfaction.

(3)     There is no significant relationship between various dimensions of Teacher Change-Proneness.

(4)     There is no significance of inter and intra relationship between the dimensions of Teacher Job Satisfaction and Teacher Change-Proneness.

(5)     There is no significant difference between Low ad High groups of Teacher Job Satisfaction in relation to Teacher Change-Proneness.

(6)     There is no significant difference between Low and High groups of Teacher Change-Proneness in relation to Teacher Job Satisfaction.

Subsidiary Hypotheses:

(7)     There is no significant difference between the Teachers in their Teacher Job Satisfaction and Teacher Change-Proneness taking the Sex into consideration.

(8)     There is no significant difference between the Teachers in their Teacher Job Satisfaction and Teacher Change-Proneness taking the Locality into consideration.

(9)     There is no significant difference between the Teachers in their Teacher Job Satisfaction and Teacher Change-Proneness taking the Age into consideration.

(10)  There is no significant difference between the Teachers in their Teacher Job Satisfaction and Teacher Change-Proneness taking the Marital status into consideration.

(11)  There is no significant difference between the Teachers in their Teacher Job Satisfaction and Teacher Change-Proneness taking the Qualification into consideration.

(12)  There is no significant difference between the Teachers in their Teacher Job Satisfaction and Teacher Change-Proneness taking the Experience into consideration.

(13)  There is no significant difference between the Teachers in their Teacher Job Satisfaction and Teacher Change-Proneness taking the Medium of Instruction into consideration.

(14)  There is no significant difference between the Teachers in their Teacher Job Satisfaction and Teacher Change-Proneness taking the Type of Management into consideration.

 

Procedure:

          In order to test the hypotheses the investigator is planned and executed in four phases.

          In the first phase is developing and standardization of Teacher Job Satisfaction and Teacher Change-Proneness self-rating scales.

          In the second phase is measuring the Teachers’ opinionnaire with the help of above two self-rating scales.

          In the third phase is using appropriate statistical procedure is adopted to find out the significant relationship between Teacher Job Satisfaction and Teacher Change-Proneness.

          In the fourth phase using appropriate statistical procedures is adopted to find out the significance of difference between the different demographic variabl

* Dr.N.V.S.Suryanarayana, Teaching Associate, Department of Education, Andhra University Campus, Vizianagaram – 535002, (AP), India

** Luciana.M.Z, Research Scholar

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