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Main Advantages about Ceramic Bearings

As important machinery parts, ceramic bearings have unmatched superior performances. Over the past decades, they have been increasingly widely used in many different industries such as aerospace, marine, nuclear industry, petroleum, chemical industry, textile industry, metallurgy, electric power, food, motorcycles, subway, and high-speed machine tools and so on. Their particular function is gradually recognized by people.

With the progress of the processing technology, costs of ceramic bearings have been declined. As in the past, they can only be used in some high-precision and advanced range of application areas. But now, they are gradually extended to various industries. Market prices of products are also gradually close to the practical situations. They are more acceptable to the users.

In recent years, research and development on ceramic bearings has yielded fruitful results and achieved substantive progress. They have been applied in machine tools, chemical industries, aerospace and many other fields. Obviously, they play a rather important part in the industries.

When compared to the steel bearings, ceramic bearings have many specific advantages. Firstly, they have higher rotating speed and acceleration capacity. They can be operated under the conditions whose dn are more than 3 million. Meanwhile, they can reduce the possibility of slipping, wear and heating. Secondly, they have long service life and resistance to wear. The fatigue life of full ceramic bearings is expected 10-50 times longer than steel bearings. Even the hybrid ceramic bearings have life span which is 3-5 times longer than the steel bearings. Thirdly, they require less lubrication. Because the coefficient of friction of ceramic materials is low, even the lubricant oil becomes thin; its lubricating ability is still as good as traditional lubricants on steel bearings. Fourthly, they are more corrosion-resistant. Ceramic materials are inert materials and it is more resistant to corrosion and abrasion. Fifthly, they have high rigidity. Due to the high elastic modulus of the ceramic materials, the rigidity of the ceramic bearings is 15-20% than the ordinary steel bearings. Sixthly, they can work under high temperature. Seventhly, their torque is low. According to the structure of ceramic bearings, their torque decreases by about 1 / 3. Eighthly, they are not magnetic and not conductive. They can avoid the damage of the magnetism and the electricity.

According to the above, we can safely draw the conclusion that ceramic bearings are increasingly important in our industries. With the development of the research and a large number of manufacturing technology breakthroughs, the application of ceramic bearings under the condition of high speed, high temperature will have very good prospects.

SeekPart.com is the global B2B platform in the industry of mechanical parts. SeekPart aggregates the trade leads in this area, and our ultimate target is to benefit the buyers and sellers of mechanical parts by utilizing these leads through our online tools.

Natick High students lose fight to use iPods for studying

Natick High students lose fight to use iPods for studying
In the end, students fell one vote short in their quest to listen to music while studying in Natick High School.

Read more on Natick Bulletin & Tab

Your Auto Shop Needs A New Tire Changer

Tire changers are machines used to help mechanics and tire technicians dismount and mount tires with most kinds of wheels. After the wheel and tire assembly are removed from the vehicle, the tire changer has all the components necessary to remove and replace the tire from the wheel. Different types of tire changers allow technicians to replace tires on automobiles, motorcycles and heavy-duty trucks. New tire and wheel technology have improved the newer tire changers to be able to change a low profile tire or a run-flat tire.

Professional Tire Changers are an essential part of any mechanic’s business. How do you know which model is right for your garage? You should have a list of specific details you want in your new tire changer, especially one with versatility.. Check out the benefits of purchasing your next tire changer from a professional automotive equipment specialist with a large selection to choose from. Our newest model specifics are below:

Ranger tire changers are the essential center-pieces of every well-run garage. With exclusive tire changing features from Ranger, the once dreaded chore of changing a tire is easier than ever. Our state-of-the-art technology and advanced features make tire changing one of the quickest and most profitable services that you can offer a client.

Some of Ranger’s exciting innovations include a helpful drop-center top mount arm that firmly holds the tire in place during rotation, a pneumatic wheel restraint device to keep a wheel locked into place, power-assist upper bead rollers that assist in bead breaking and setting, one of the largest wheel-clamping ranges in the industry, power-assist mounting towers for even more versatility and an overall superior design that’s meant to last and last.

Other innovations include tilt-back towers for increased clearance, large bead-breaking blades, powerful hi-torque turntables, jet-blast pistol inflation gauge with air dump valve, as well as a fully-adjustable tool bar. All of this comes packed in an easy-to-use, free-standing console that’s as safe as it is efficient.

The Ranger R745 is the perfect no-frills tire changer for entry level tire and wheel service. The R745 allows you to service most all OEM and specialty tires and wheels up to 21″ with convenient up-front foot pedals that give you precise control during all wheel service procedures. The R745 comes standard with a wheel protection kit that includes a durable nylon bead breaker cover, wheel clamp guards, tool head guards, and tire tool protector to help prevent metal-to-metal contact and costly wheel damage.

A high-torque electric turntable drive features increased speed and reversible direction for quicker tire removal and installation.
Enhanced bead breaker arm features rugged box frame construction that increases the mechanical strength and assures years of dependable service and performance. A large rubber bump-stop assures smooth return to help reduce shock loading and minimize wear on pneumatic cylinder, guides and associated moving parts.
Durable forged steel (instead of cast iron) foot pedal levers will stand up to everyday use and abuse in high-volume tire centers. Snap action spring return means precise and controlled operation.
All main-lead electrical terminals, auxiliary switches, and motor enclosures are sealed for air-tight, dust-free and contamination-proof protection of terminal leads.
High pressure polyurethane pneumatic tubing with mirror smooth seamless bore has exceptional flow rates, high abrasion resistance, high burst tolerance and maximum kink resistance.
Specially engineered drive-belt features convex sidewalls to distribute wear evenly while providing proper belt support for improved service life. Flex-bonded cords and flex-weave covers resist the effects of oil, heat, ozone, weather and aging.
A maintenance-free gearbox features a large oil and grease reservoir that helps provide efficient heat dissipation and improved lubrication for longer service life. Internal baffles and a constant seating stress flange gasket assure positive, leak-free venting.
Durable, hardened, alloy-steel RimGuard™ wheel clamps features internal and external multiteeth jaws with vertical mounting bolts that make replacement fast and simple. Up front controls and a sensible ergonomic design provide ease of use and more efficient operation.
Stainless-steel and aluminum pneumatic cylinders are designed to reduce machine vibration and provide low-friction and long life operation. Internal end-of-stroke cushions are standard that help provide cushioning at the end of each full stroke to recue wear on seals, wear band and piston rod. Permanent lubrication design provides outstanding service life.
A hardened alloy steel mount and demount head has a unique equidimensional shape that allows you to perform all changing functions with the tool head in the same position. The micro-smooth tool head surface glides tire beads effortlessly during mounting and demounting procedures to ensure costly tire damage is minimized.
Important wheel service accessories come standard like a large soap bucket with brush and a multi-piece plastic wheel protector kit that includes turntable jaw covers, bead-breaker blade boots and specialized mount / demount head covers to help protect delicate wheels. A hardened-steel tire iron and bead lever tool comes standard to assist during all tire mounting and demounting operations.
A rigid 45mm spring assist hexagonal vertical tool shaft maintains perfect position of the mount-demount tool head during all tire service procedures to reduce the chance of expensive wheels getting damaged. A simple to use pistol type tire inflator features a sure-grip clip-on valve chuck enabling hands-free operation.
Plenty of storage area for tools and accessories. Helps keep your shop tidy and operation-critical tools close at hand.
Optional motorcycle turntable clamps add a whole extra level of versatility. Expand your capabilities, clientele and your bottom line.

It’s easy to see how important these features are when planning to invest in equipment that will last through many years of everyday use. Make sure your new tire changing equipment meets the high standards of Ranger.

Brian Davis is an expert on Auto Repair Equipment and has written numerous articles on the Auto Repair Equipment industry. See the newest auto equipment for your garage HERE

Cheap Electronics on Paper Diagnostic Chips

Cheap Electronics on Paper Diagnostic Chips
High-performance disposable electronics could improve the quality of inexpensive tests. Disposable diagnostic tests currently under development could offer medical workers and patients in rural areas more detailed health information, such as viral counts in the blood of HIV patients, without the need for expensive equipment such as cameras, computers, or even cell phones. Researchers at two …

Read more on Technology Review

Purify With Practice

ABRAHAM LINCOLN –”Always bear in mind that your own resolution to succeed is more important than any other one thing.”
ABRAHAM LINCOLN –”You may fool all the people some of the time, you can even fool some of the people all of the time, but you cannot fool all of thepeopleallthetime.”
ABU BAKR A’L-WARRAQ –”The spiritual warrior is he who has no enemy.”
ACARANGASUTRA –”One who is rich with enlightenment will not indulge in sinful action, since his conscience is guided by the intellect, fully illumined with Truth.”
ACHARYA MAHAPRAJNA –”Actually the whole world is passing through the age of transition. For truth this age has been very costly. Being eternal, it is neither new nor old so, on both sides, the doors to it are closed.”
ALBERT EINSTEIN –”We cannot solve problems by using the same kind of thinking we used when we created them.”
ALICE WALKER –”People do not wish to appear foolish; to avoid the appearance of foolishness, they are willing to remain actually fools.”
AMRITA PRITAM –”When i draped myself with your being Our bodies were turned within in meditation. Then our limbs entwined like flowers in a garland As an offering at the altar of the soul. You and i, incense offered at a sacrificial fire Our names slipped out of our lips To become a sacred hymnal, That was a sacred ceremony for you and me. Religious rituals came much later.”
ANDREW COHEN –”It is very important to consider what evolution and development at the level of the soul really means. It’s not something we’re accustomed to thinking about very deeply… There’s a tremendous amount of resistance within us to the very thing that we think we want. So it’s essential to knoyv this from the very beginning, because then we can be prepared to do battle with it.”
ANDREW COHEN –”Unless we areeach willing to make the effort to become clear about what our fundamental spiritual and philosophical position is, in relationship to what it means to be a conscious human being in an evolving universe, we’re going to have a difficult time keeping our boat moving in a straight line. We will find ourselves tossed all over the place, swept here and there by the fast-moving tides of exponential change… In the time we are living in, we need to find a moral, ethical, philosophical, and spiritual context that not only empowers us to embrace the fact of perpetual change, but compels us to consciously evolve.”
ANONYMOUS –”The real Lent is the puttingforthofaman’shand to quiet his own passions and to push them aside, that the higher voices may speak to him and the higher touches fall upon him. It is the making of emptiness about the soul, that the higher fullness mayfillit… There will be no fasting days, no Lent, in heaven. Not because we shall have no bodies there, but because our bodies there will be open to God, the helps and not the hindrances of spiritual communication to our souls.”
ANONYMOUS –”What you are, never ends. What you have, does.”
ANTHONY DE MELLO –”Disciple: How shall i get liberation? Master: Find out who has bound you. The disciple returned after a week. Disciple: No one has Bound me. Master: Then why ask to be liberated?”
ANTHONY ROBBINS –”Most people have no idea of the giant capacity we can immediately command when we focus all of our resources on mastering a single area of our lives.”
ARABIAN PROVERB –”He who knows not and knows not he knows not, he is a fool – shun him. He who knows not and knows he knows not, he is simple teach him. He who knows and knows not he knows, he is asleep – awaken him. He who knows and knows that he knows, he is wise -follow him.”
ARVIND SHARMA –”Our experience of the world presents a profound paradox which we can ignore existentially, but not philosophically. This paradox is the paradox of change. Something-A changes and therefore it cannot be permanent. On the other hand, if A is not permanent, then what changes? In this debate between the ‘permanence’  and ‘change’, Hinduism seems more inclined to grasp the first horn of the dilemma and Buddhism the second. It is Jainism that has the philosophical courage to grasp both horns fearlessly and simultaneously, and the philosophical skill no to be gored by either.”
ASHLEIGH BRILLIANT –”My biggest problem is what to do about all the things i can’t do anything about.”
ATHARVA VEDA –”Earth, my mother, set me securely with bliss in full accord with heaven, 0 Wise One, uphold me in grace and splendour!”
ATHARVA VEDA –”Earth, my mother, set me securely with bliss to full accord with heaven, 0 Wise One, uphold me in grace and splendour!”
ATHARVA VEDA –”When the sun is over your head, there will be no shadow; similarly, when faith is steady in your head, it should not cast any shadow of doubt.”
AUGUSTUS W HARE –”The cross was two pieces of dead wood; and a helpless, unresisting Man was nailed to it; yet it. was mightier than the world, and triumphed, and will ever triumph over it.”
AUTHOR UNKNOWN –”You can choose to be happy or sad and whichever you choose that is what you get. No one is really responsible to make someone else happy, no matter what most people have been taught and accept as true.”
B K S IYENGAR –”Yoga, an ancient but perfect science, deals with the evolution of humanity. This evolution includes all aspects of one’s being, from bodily health to selfrealisation. Yoga means union-the union of body with consciousness and consciousness with the soul. Yoga cultivates the ways of maintaining a balanced attitude in dayto-day life and endows skill in the performance of one’s actions.”
BAIDYANATH SARASWATI –”The mythical space merges into a physical space identified with the sacred. The Sacred Space echoes the cosmic play which is boundless.”
BENNETTJ SIMS –”Servanthood is the chief modifier of the power implicit in all leadership – a quality of innerness, an attribute of soul that checks the corruptibility of power… Real power is always an exchange of leadership to use power to call out the God-given power of others.”
BERTHOLD AUERBACH –”Music washes away .. from the soul the dust of everyday life.”
BERTRAND RUSSELL –”Three passions have governed my life:/ The longings for love, the search for knowledge,/ And unbearable pity for the suffering of [humankind]./ Love brings ecstasy and relieves loneliness… / With equal passion I . have sought knowledge. ../ Love and knowledge led upwards to the heavens,/ But always pity brought me back to earth;/ Cries of pain reverberated in my heart/ Of children in famine, of victims tortured/ And of old people left helpless./ I long to alleviate the evil, but i cannot,/ And i too suffer./ This has been my life; i found it worth living.”
BHAGAVAD GITA –”All created beings are unmanifest in their beginning, manifest in their interim state and unmanifest again when they are annihilated. So what need is there for lamentation?”
BHAGAVAD GITA –”As the blazingfire reduces wood to ashes, similarly the fire of Self-knowledge reduces all Karma to ashes.”
BHAGAVAD GITA –”He whom the world troubles not, and who troubles not the world, he who is free from the emotions of joy, wrath and fear, is dear to Me. The man who is guileless, pure, upright, unconcerned, free from distress of mind, he who renounces every enterprise and worships Me, is dear to Me. He who has neither delight nor aversion, who neither mourns nor desires, who renounces good and evil fortune, and worships Me, is dear to Me. He who is the same to friend and foe, and also in honour and dishonour, who is the same in cold and heat, pleasure and pain, who is wholly free from attachment; To whom praise and blame are equal, who is silent, content with every fortune, home-renouncing, steadfast in mind, and worships Me, that man is dear to Me.”
BHAGAVAD GITA –”I am the wind among the purifiers, and Lord Rama among the warriors.”
BHAGAVAD GITA –”It is through action without attachment that Janaka and other wise men reached perfection. Having an eye to maintenance of the world order, you should take action. For whatever a great man does, that very thing other men also do; whatever standard he sets up, the generality of men follow the same.”
BHAGAVAD GITA –”Offering the fruit of actions to God, the Karmayogi attains everlasting peace in the shape of God-realisation, whereas he who works with a selfish motive, being attached to the fruit of actions through desire, gets tied down.”
BHAGAVAD GITA –”The contacts of the senses with the sense objects give rise to the feelings of heat and cold, and pain and pleasure. They are transitory and impermanent. Therefore, leam to endure them, 0 Arjuna.”
BHAGAVAD GITA –”The faith of every man, 0 Arjuna, accords with his nature. Man is made up of faith; as is his faith, so is he. The threefold austerity (of body, speech, and mind) practised with faith by men of balanced mind, without any expectation of reward, is said to be pure. Without faith, whatever offering or gift is made of work done or penance performed, it is reckoned “not-being” both now and hereafter.”
BHAGAVAD GITA –”The meaning of our self is not to be found in its separateness from God and others, but in the ceaseless realisation of yoga, of union; not on the side of the canvas where it is blank, but on the side where the picture is being painted. Rabindranath Tagore I am impartial to all. Those who give Me their heart’s love are in Me, as I am in them… All those who take refuge in me, whatever their birth, race, gender, or caste, will attain the supreme goal; this realization can be attained even by those scorned by society.”
BHAGAVAD GITA –”Whatever you do, make it an offering to me – the food you eat, the sacrifices you make, the help you give, even your suffering. In this way you :will be freed from the bondage of karma, and from its results, both pleasant and painful.”
BHAGAVAD GITA –”When your intellect that is confused by the conflicting opinions and the ritualistic doctrine of the Vedas – shall stay steady and firm with the Self, then you shall attain Self-realisation.”
BHAGAVAD GITA, -“God is present in the mind of that person who remains calm when faced by the pairs of opposites such as cold and heat, joy and sorrow, honour and dishonour.”
BIBLE –”Faith is the substance of things hoped for, the evidence of things not seen.”
BIBLE –”Foolishness is bound in the heart of a child; but the rod of correction shall drive it far from him.”
BIBLE –”Forbearing one another, and forgiving one another, if any man has a quarrel against any: even as Christ forgave you, so also do ye.”
BIBLE –”In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. He was in the beginning with God. All things came into being through him, and without him not one thing came into being.”
BILL GATES –”Until we’re educating every kid in a fantastic way, until every inner city is cleaned up, there is no shortage of things to do.”
BRAHMAKUMARIS –”There is no nourishment like happiness – it’s an elixir. There is no sickness like sorrow-it’s a poison. The experience of true happiness cures the sickness of sorrow. A cheerful face goes a long way towards making everything better The one who causes pain to others can never experience real joy.”
BRIHADARANYAKA UPANISHAD –”There are no chariots there, no bridges, no roads. But he projects from himself chariots, bridges, roads. There are no blisses there, no pleasures, no delights. But he projects from himselfblisses, pleasures, delights. There are no tanks there, no lotus-pools, no streams. But he projects from himself tanks, lotus-pools, streams. For he is a creator.. In the state of sleep, going high and low, a god, he makes many forms for himself.”
BRIHADARANYAKA UPANISHAD –”Where there is separateness, one sees another, smells another, tastes another, speaks to another, hears another, touches another, thinks of another, knows another. But where there is unity, one without a second, that is the world of Brahmn.”
CARL JUNG –”The man who promises everything is sure to fulfil nothing, and everyone who promises too much is in danger of using evil means in order to carry out his promises, and is already on the road to perdition.”
CARLOS CASTANEDA –”Only as a warrior can one withstand the path of knowledge. A warrior cannot complain or regret anything. His life is an endless challenge, and challenges cannot possibly be good or bad. Challenges are simply challenges.”
CHANDIDAS –”Love has captured me in tender youth/ And you leave me no peace in my house/I will end my life, jump in the sea,/ Yearning to be reborn as Krishna,/ And you as Radha in the next life/ Then my love will snare, and then abandon you,/ As you go to the well, I will gracefully/ Stand under the Kadamba with my flute/ Chandidas says, you as a simple woman,/ Will fall under the spell of my flute,/ And then it will be your turn, 0 Krishna/ To suffer the burning pangs of love.”
CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD –”The Self is one, though it appears to be many. Those who meditate upon the Self and realise the Self go beyond decay and death, beyond separateness and sorrow. They see the Self in everyone and obtain all things.”
CHARLIE BROWN –”This is my “depressed stance”. When you’re depressed, it makes a lot of difference how you stand. The worst thing you can do is straighten up and hold your head high because then you’ll start to feel better. If you’re going to get any joy out of being depressed, you’ve got to stand like this.”
CHIEF SEATTLE –”Humankind has not woven the web of life. We are but one thread within it. Whatever we do to the web, we do to ourselves. All things are bound together. All things connect.”
CHINESE PROVERB –”In the midst of great joy, do not promise anyone anything. In the midst of great anger, do not answer anyone’s letter.”
CHOGYAM TRUNGPA –”The idea of a warrior is based on a sense of fundamental fearlessness… Warriorship is a basic sense of unshakeability. It’s a sense of immovability and self-existing dignity rather than you trying to fight with something else.”
CHUCK PALAHNIUK –”If you wake up at a different time, in a different place – could you wake up as a different person?”
CHUCK PALAHNIUK –”The best way to waste your life… is by taking notes. The easiest way to avoid living is to just watch. Look for the details. Report. Don’t participate.”
CICERO –”I prefer the most unfair peace to the most righteous war.”
COLETTE –”What a wonderful life I’ve had! I only wish I’d realised it sooner.”
DAISAKU IKEDA –”The real seeds of peace lie not in lofty ideas but in human understanding and the empathy of ordinary people. While radicalism is fated by its nature to resort to violence and terror, the most potent weapon in the arsenal of the gradualist — the radical’s opposite — is dialogue… Only with the open space created by dialogue, whether conducted with our neighbours, with history, with nature or the cosmos, can human wholeness be sustained. The closed silence of the disengaged can only become the site of spiritual suicide.”
DAISAKU IKEDA –”We need to awaken to a common consciousness of all being inhabitants of Earth. This consciousness is not to be found in some distant place. It will not be found on a computer screen. It lies in our hearts, in our ability to share the pain of our fellow human beings. It is the spirit that says: “As long as you are suffering, whoever you are and whatever your suffering may be, I suffer also.” One thing is certain: That is that the power of belief, the power of thought, will move reality in the direction of what we believe and conceive of it. If you really believe you can do something, you can. That is a fact.”
DAISAKU IKEDA –”We need to awaken to a common consciousness of all being inhabitants of Earth. This consciousness is not to be found in some distant place. It will not be found on a computer screen. It lies in our hearts, in our ability to share the pain of our fellow human beings. It is the spirit thatsays: “As long as you are suffering, whoever you are and whatever your suffering may be, i suffer also.” One thing is certain: That is that the powerofbelief, the power of thought, will move reality in the direction of what we believe and conceive of it. If you really believe you can do something, you can. That is a fact.”
DENIS WAITLEY –”The results you achieve will be in direct proportion to the effort you apply.”
DEVI MAHATMYA –”That peerless splendour, born from the bodies of all the gods, unified and per vading the triple world with its lustre, became a woman.”
EDNA DEAN PROCTOR –”The fasts are done; the Aves said; The moon has filled her horn And in the solemn night i watch Before the Easter morn. So pure, so still the starry heaven, So hushed the brooding air, I could hear the sweep of an angel’s wings If one should earthward fare.”
EGYPTIAN TOMB INSCRIPTION –”That each day I may walk unceasingly on the banks of my water, that my soul may repose on the branches of the trees which I planted, that I may refresh my self under the shadow of my sycomore.”
EKNATH EASWARAN –”Instead of sayingthe mantra once, the way we say hello at the beginning of a conversation, the idea is to repeat it over and over again. The effect of the mantra is cumulative With constant repetition, constant practice, it takes root in our consciousness and gradually transforms it. This may sound tedious, but it is far from that. The mantra soon becomes a familiar friend of whom we never grow tired.”
EMMET FOX –”There is no difficulty that enough love will not conquer. No disease that enough love will not heal. No door that enough love will not open. No wall that enough love will not throw down. No sin that enough love will not redeem. It makes no difference how deeply seated may be the trouble, how hopeless the outlook, how muddled the tangle, how great the mistake, a sufficient realisation of love will dissolve it all… If only you could love enough you would be the happiest and most powerful being in the world.”
EPHE.SIANS –”For by grace you have been saved through faith; and this is your own doing, it is the gift of God – not because of works, lest any man should boast.”
ERNESTINE ULMER –”Life is uncertain. Eat dessert first.”
ETHEL BARRYMORE –”You grow up the day you have your first real laugh – at yourself.”
EVEN ESAR –”You can’t do anything about/ The length of your life,/ But you can do something/ About its width and depth.”
FR ANDREW –”The highest love of all finds its fulfillment not in what it keeps, but in what it gives.”
FREDERICK KEONIG –”We tend to forget that happiness doesn’t come as a result of getting something we don’t have, but rather of recognising and appreciating what we do have.”
GAUTAMA BUDDHA –”In the sky, there is no distinction of east and west; people create distinctions out of their own minds and then believe them to be true.”
GAUTAMA BUDDHA –”On life’s journey faith is nourishment, virtuous deeds are shelter, wisdom is light by day and right mindfulness is protection by night. If a man lives a pure life, nothing can destroy him.”
GEETA RADHAKRISHNA –”I am a Banyan tree, Standing here, For hundred and three years, Breathing, Watching! A silent witness To many stories, events and people…”
GEETA RADHAKRISHNA –”I am a Banyan tree, Standing here, For hundred and three years, Breathing, Watching A silent witness To many stories,  events and people…”
GERMAN PROVERB –”The main thing is keeping the main thing the main thing.”
GOLDA MEIR –”Whether women are better than men l cannot say – but I can say they are certainly no worse.”
GRAFFITI ON A WALL –”There can be no Security without Peace There can be no Peace without Freedom There can be no Freedom without Justice There can be no Justice without Love.”
GREEK MYTHOLOGY –”Hermes is the messenger of gods. He is also the guide to the underworld, the patron of boundaries and of travellers who cross these boundaries, of shepherds and cowherds, even thieves andliars. His symbols include the tortoise, winged sandals, the rooster, winged hats and the musical instrument, caducous. Very similar to Roman god Mercury, Hermes was also patron of commerce.”
GUNAWARDANE –”Communication technologies are necessary, but not sufficient, for us humans to get along with each other. Technology tools help us to gather and disseminate information, but we also need qualities like tolerance and compassion to achieve greater understanding between, peoples and nations.
GUNAWARDANE –”Let’s be optimistic if only because it offers us the opportunity of creating a self-fulfilling prophecy.”
GUNAWARDANE –”The time has come for us to move our focus from the geeks to the meek. We need to turn digital communication tools to work for the poor and the disadvantaged.”
GUNAWARDANE –”Who is an intellectual ? He is someone educated beyond his intelligence.
GURU GRANTH SAHIB –”The Lord is Merciful to the meek, always and gentle; the Creator has brought cooling relief.”
GURU GRANTH SAHIB –”There is only one breath. All are made of the same clay. The light within all is the same.”
GURU GRANTH SAHIB –”What is that Word, by which the wandering mind can be restrained? What are those teachings, by which we may endure pain and pleasure alike?”
GURU NANAK –”If you yearn to sport love-divine, you can gain entrance to the arena of love with your head on your palm. And once ; you have set out on this path of love, offer and lay down your head with least concern for anything else.”
GURU NANAK –”We are conceived in woman, we are born to woman. Woman is our lifelong companion, and pillar of our survival. It is through woman, that we establish social relationships. Why should we denounce her, when even kings and great men are born from her?”
HAFIZ –”The subject tonight is Love And for tomorrow night as well. As a matter of fact, I know no better topic For us to discuss Until we all die!”
HEMACHANDRA –”At any time, in any form and accepted name, if one is shorn of all attachment, that one is you alone, My Lord! You are one although variously appearing.”
I THESSALONIANS –”Pray without ceasing, In everything give thanks.”
IMAM HUSSAIN –”I left all creation for the sake of you…so that I may see you. So if I am cut to pieces for the love of you, my heart would lean to none other than you.”
INDIAN PROVERB –”No one’s head aches when he is comforting another.”
ISAVASYA UPANISHAD –”You will not get anything out of selfish action, because you are organically related to the whole organism of the creation of the world. This is a fact that you forget when you individually take initiatives and when you expect the fruit to follow from your individually motivated action. That fruit does not always follow, because the means and ends have some connection. You cannot adopt one kind of means and expect another kind of end. The means – in the ordinary case of people – is a selfish motivation, but the end that you expect has to be sanctioned by the structure of the whole.”
J KRISHNAMURTI –”If we could unravel together the whole problem of change, how to bring about a change in the individual and what that change implies, then perhaps, in the very act of listening, participating in the inquiry, there might come about a change which is without your volition. For me, a deliberate change, a change which is compulsory, disciplinary, conformative, is no change at all. Force, influence, some new invention, propaganda, a fear, a motive compels you! to change — that is no change at all. And though intellectually you may agree very easily with this, i assure you that to fathom the actual nature of change without a motive is quite extraordinary.”
J KRISHNAMURTI –”The moment you have in your heart this extraordinary thing called love and feel the depth, the delight, the ecstasy of it, you will discover that for you the world is transformed.”
J MOTAVALLI –”The average meat eater is responsible for the deaths of some 2,400 animals during his or her lifetime. Animals raised for food endure great suffering in their housing, transport, feeding and slaughter.”
JACK VALENTI –”I define perception as what people think is right and true, though it may be no such thing. But, perception has a ravenous power because springs from conviction.”
JAIN PRAYER –”I grant forgiveness to all living beings May all living beings please forgive me. I have friendship with all living beings. I have no hostility towards anyone.”
JAINWORLD.COM –”Jain cosmology recognises the fundamental natural phenomenon of symbiosis or mutual dependence, which forms the basis ofthe modern day science of ecology. The term ‘ecology’ was coined in the latter half of the 19th century from the Greek word oikos, meaning ‘home’, a place to which one returns. Ecology is the branch of biology that deals with the relations of organisms to their surroundings and to other organisms. The ancient Jain scriptural aphorism ‘Parasparopagrahojivanam’ – all life is bound together by mutual support and interdependence-is refreshingly contemporary.”
JALALUDDIN RUMI –”Know that the body is like a garment. Go, seek the wearer of the garment… You are such that without the material body you have a spiritual body: Do not, then, dread the going forth of the soul from the body.”
JALALUDDIN RUMI –”The satiated man and the hungry one do not see the same thing when they look upon a loaf of bread.”
JALA-UD-DIN RUMI –”I sought asoul in the sea And found a coral there Beneath the foam of mine An ocean was laid bare.”
JAMES G HUNEKER –”He dares to be a fool, and that is the first step in the direction of wisdom.”
JAPANESE PROVERB –”Vision without action is a daydream. Action without vision is a nightmare.”
JASON CRANDELL –”Yoga is the perfect opportunity to be curious about who you are.”
JIDDU KRISHNAMURTI –”After all, the problem throughout the world is the inadequate response to the new, changing challenge of life.”
JOEY ADAMS –”May. all your troubles last as long as your New Year’s resolutions,”
JOHN B COBB –”From the beginnings of domestication of animals, interest in their freedom from suffering has been subordinated to economic considerations… But with the advent of factory farming, the evil has been terribly accentuated.”
JOHN C MAXWELL –”True leadership must be for the benefit of the followers, not to enrich the leader.”
JOHN DENVER –”The nuclear arms race is like two people sitting in a pool of gasoline spending all their time making matches.”
JOHN F KENNEDY –”The purpose of foreign policy is…to shape real events  in a real world.”
JP VASWANI –”.. Do not despair/Nor lose hope/ But move on in faith and love./ The clouds will disperse/ And the sun will shine again!”
KABIR –”My Sadguru is a true warrior He shoots his arrows Of wisdom on the vices of his devotee; Says Kabir that the devotee should bear these blows and not run away fromhim.”
KAHLIL GIBRAN –”Paul and foolishness lead to great bliss and complete knowledge, for Eternal Wisdom created nothingunder the sun in vain.”
KAHLIL GIBRAN –”We choose our joys and sorrows long before we experience them.”
KALIDASA –”Listen to the Exhortation of the Dawn! Look to this Day! For it is Life, the very Life Of Life. In its brief course lie all the Verities and Realities of your Existence. The Bliss of Growth, The Glory of Action, The Splendour of Beauty; For Yesterday is but a Dream, And Tomorrow is only a Vision; But Today well lived makes Every Yesterday a Dream of Happiness, And every Tomorrow a Vision of Hope. Look well therefore to this Day! Such is the Salutation of the Dawn!”
KATHA UPANISHAD –”As in a mirror, so (it is seen) in the soul, as in a dream, so in the world of the manes, as (an object) is seen in water, so in the world of the gandharvas; as shade and light in the world of Brahmn.”
KATHA UPANISHAD –”The wise who knows the Self as bodiless within the bodies, as unchanging among changing things, as great and omnipresent, does never grieve. That Self cannot be gained by the Veda, nor by understanding, nor by much learning. He whom the Self chooses, by him the Self can be gained. The Self chooses him (his body) as his own. But he who has not first turned away from his wickedness, who is not tranquil, and subdued, or whose mind is not at rest, he can never obtain the Self (even) by knowledge.”
KATHA UPANISHAD –”There are two selves, the separate ego and the indivisible Atman. When one rises above T, ‘me’and’mine’, the Atman is revealed as one’s real Self.”
KATHA UPANISHAD –”This calm steadiness of the senses is called yoga.”
KENA UPANISHAD –”‘Atmanavindate viryam’- By the knowledge of the Atman, an individual gets infinite energy.”
KOFI ANNAN –”When women thrive, all of society benefits, and succeeding generations are given a better start in life.”
KRIPALU JI MAHARAJ –”Oh gyanis! Don’t say that Brahmn is only formless and without qualities. Listen very carefully. If Brahmn were formless, then He wouldn’t have become like the anjan (kajal or collyrium) in the eyes of the Gopis of Braj and followed them like an eager beloved.”
KULARNAVA TANTRA –”As the insect, by the power of concentration, becomes a bee, so does man become Brahmn by dint of samadhi.”
LAL DED –”I looked for the Moon within myself Searching like to like in forms,” Thou art this and this and that and that Then what is this shadow-play of forms?”
LAL DED –”Stirred by love i, Lalla left my home To search for Him day in, day out; But lo! The wonder i saw the Pundit at my home On a blessed and auspicious hour of illumination It is we who were and shall ever be, It is we who have ever moved around. Shiva shall ever dissolve and reappear As the sun shall ever rise and set.”
LAURETTA P BURNS –”As children bring their broken toys with tears for us to mend, I brought my broken dreams to God because He was my friend. But then instead of leaving them with Him in peace to work alone, I hung around and tried to help with ways that were my own. At last i snatched them back and cried, “How can you be so slow?” “My child”. He said, “What could I do? You never did let go.”
LES BROWN –”You must remain focused on your journey to greatness.”
LUDWIGVAN BEETHOVEN –”Music is the mediator between the spiritual and the sensual life.”
LYNDON JOHNSON –”If you are walking down the street and ten people come up to you separately and teU you that you’re drunk, even though you haven’t had a drink for 20 years, you better go home and lie down.”
MACHIAUELLI –”Nothing is eternal on the earth below; And fortune delights in constant change, So she may more plainly show her power.”
MADHAV PUNDALIK PANDIT –”The insect is said to evolve into a bee by the sheer force of its brooding. Even so, man can become Brahmn if he concentrates sufficiently up-on Brahmn. He gathers up all the threads of his consciousness, focuses it on the Idea, the truth of Brahmn that he wants to be, and dwells upon it uninterruptedly. By practice, the consciousness absorbs the nature of the object concentrated up-on – here the Brahmn -and slowly becomes one with it. Man becomes Brahmn.”
MAHA GHOSANANDA –”If we cannot be happy in spite of our difficulties, what good is our spiritual practice?”
MAHARISHI MAHESH YOGI –”Every level of creation is a frequency. One frequency melts into the other, and this is how the process of evolution takes place. The night comes to an end and the dawn begins. At dawn, when the darkness and dullness of the night is over, some inspiringfreshness comes and there is a different frequency in the whole atmosphere. At midday, there is another big change in frequency; at evening, a different frequency; at midnight, a different frequency. This cycle of change is perpetual, and because everything is a frequency there is sound at every stage. From morning to morning the melody of Nature is changing. Gandharva music goes with the time, setting its melodies accordingto the changing Nature. It sets forth those very natural melodies which match with the process of evolution. It provides a powerful harmonizing influence in the whole atmosphere to balance imbalances in Nature.”
MAHAVIRA –”A living body is not merely an integration of limbs and flesh but it is the abode of the soul, which potentially has anant darshana or perfect perception, anant jnana or perfect knowledge, anant virya or perfect power and anant shukia or perfect bliss.”
MANU SMRITI –”Where women are honoured, there the gods are pi eased. But where they are not honoured, no sacred rite yields rewards.”
MARTIN LUTHER KING JR –”Everybody can be great because anybody can serve. You don’t have to have a college degree to serve. You don’t have to make your subject and verb agree to serve. You only need a heart full of grace. A soul generated by love.”
MARTIN LUTHER KING JR –”The ultimate measure of a man is not where he stands in moments of comfort and convenience, but where he stands at times of challenge and controversy.”
MATA AMRITANANDAMAYI –”Only in the state of love will the beautiful, fragrant flower of freedom and supreme bliss unfold its petals and bloom.”
MATTHEW –”When ye fast, be not, as the hypocrites, of a sad countenance: for they disfigure their faces, that they may appear unto men to fast. Verily i say unto you, they have their reward.But thou, when thou fastest, anoint thine head, and wash thy face; That thou appear not unto men to fast, but unto thy Father which is in secret: and thy Father, which seeth in secret, shall reward thee openly.”
MAURICE HINCHEY –”The importance of the river cannot be overstated in the history of the country, or the development of the nation.”
MELINDA M MARSHALL –”So long as the source of our identity is external vested in how others judge our performance at work, or how others judge our children’s performance, or how much money we make – we will find ourselves hopelessly flawed, forever short of the ideal.”
MEVLANA RUMI –”Make everything in you an ear, each atom of your being, and you will hear at every moment what the Source is whisper ing to you.. .you are – we all are – the beloved of the beloved, and in every moment, in every event of your life, the Beloved is whisper ing to you exactly what you need to hear and know. Who can ever explain this miracle? It simply is.”
MIRABAI –”Rana your strange world is not to my liking It has ho saints and its people are base. I’ve given up ornaments and the braiding of hair I’ve given up collyrium and the tying of braids. Mira has found a perfect groom, Krishna the Lord.”
MK GANDHI –”A man with a grain of faith in God never loses hope, because he ever believes in the ultimate triumph of Truth.”
MK GANDHI –”Be the change you want to see in the world.”
MK GANDHI –”Breach of promise is a base surrender of truth.”
MK GANDHI –”Happiness is when what you think, what you say, and what you do are in harmony.”
MK GANDHI –”I say with conviction that the doctrine for which the name ofMahavira is glorified nowadays is the doctrine ofahimsa. If anyone has practised to the fullest extent and has propagated most the doctrine of ahimsa, it was Mahavira.”
MK GANDHI –”It was the rigid simplicity, the utter self-effacement of the Prophet, the scrupulous regard for his pledges, his intense devotion to his friends and followers, his intrepidity, his fearlessness, his absolute trust in God and his own mission.”
MK GANDHI –”The greatness of a nation and its moral progress can be judged by the way its animals are treated… Spiritual progress does demand at some stage that we should cease to kill our fellow creatures for the satisfaction of our bodily wants.”
MK GANDHI –”To install Rama Nama in the heart requires infinite patience. It might even take ages. But the effort is worthwhile.”
MUKUNDA GOSWAMI AND KRISHNA DHARMA DASA –”There are different levels on which these problems are solved. Firstly, there is directly perceived evidence-pratyaksha. We can see on a personal Ie vel how Krsna consciousness leads to a reduction in stress levels, a healthier diet and greater. inner peace. Secondly, there is hypothetical evidence, or anumana. For example, if everyone is individually peaceful then logically the whole world could become peaceful. Lastly, there are the authoritative statements, or shahda, which tell us that the, whole world will become peaceful by Krsna consciousness. This is illustrated in scriptures such as the Srimad Bhagavatam, which says that if you water the root of the tree all the branches and twigs will be nourished.”
MUNDAKA UPANISHAD –”Not by sight is It grasped, not even by speech,/ Not by any other sense-organs, austerity, or work./ That subtle Soul is to be known by thought.”
NORMAN VINCENT PEALE –”The person who sends out positive thoughts activates the world around him positively and draws back to himself positive results.”
NURSERY RHYME –”Row, row, row your boat Gently down the stream Merrily, merrily, merrily, merrily Life is but a dream.”
OG MANDINP –”This is what i tell myself: If you feel depressed, sing. If you feel sad, laugh. If you feel ill, double your labour. If you feel fear, plunge ahead. If you feel inferior, wear new  garments. If you feel uncertain, raise your voice. If you feel poverty think of wealth to come. If you feel incompetent, think of past success, If you feel insignificant, remember your goals, Today be the master of your emotions.”
OMRAAM MIKHAEL AIVANHOU –”Love is like a spring that never stops flowing. When you arrive at this spring, do not rush to drink from it. Stop and rest a while, recover from the long road you have traveled and then catch the water into your hands like in a cup and bring it to your lips, slowly, do not be afraid that the water will ever dry up. The spring of love is. inexhaustible. So drink the water of love without haste and with grateful recognition. Each of the persons who love you is a spring from which you draw, so be careful and do not make this spring cloudy. ”
OSCAR WILDE –”The best way to appreciate your job is to imagine yourself without one.”
OSHO –”As long as you believe and know that it is true and focus on it, it will happen.”
OSHO –”Each person comes into this world with a specific destiny – he has something to fulfil, some message has to be delivered, some work has to be completed. You are not here accidentally; you are here meaningfully. There is a purpose behind you. The whole intends to do something through you.”
OSHO –”I am nobody’s disciple. I don’t belong to any belief system. I love people from all over the world and I never compare them. They are all unique, a Zarathustra is a Zarathustra, a Mahavira is a Mahavira, a Buddha is a Buddha, a  Jesus is a Jesus, a Moses is a Moses.. .they are so unique that you should not make one of them a criterion that everybody else has to fit with.”
OSHO –”Pleasure is a sort of oblivion, a kind of forgetfulness. Pain is remembrance; you cannot forget pain.”
PARAMAHANSA YOGANANDA –”Begin with yourself. There is no time to waste. It is your duty to do your part to bring God’s kingdom on earth.”
PARAMAHANSA YOGANANDA –”For Peace’s Sake Much more can be achieved by setting a good example than by the use of harsh or self-righteous words.”
PARAMAHANSA YOGANANDA –”Spiritual success comes by understanding the mystery of life; and by looking on all things cheerfully and courageously, realising that events proceed according to a beautiful divine plan.”
PAULO COELHO –”The two worst strategic mistakes to make are acting prematurely and letting an opportunity slip; to avoid this, the warrior treats each situation as if it were unique and never resorts to formulae, recipes or other people’s opinions.”
PEGGY JENKINS –”To disco ver joy is to return to a state of oneness with the universe.”
PHILLIPS BROOKS –”The essence of that by which Jesus overcame the world was not suffering, but obedience. Yes, men may puzzle themselves and their hearers over the question where the power of the life of Jesus and the death of Jesus lay; but the soul of the Christian always knows that it lay in the obedience of Christ. He was determined at every sacrifice to do His Father’s will. Let us remember that; and the power of Christ’s sacrifice may enter into us, and some little share of the redemption of the tiyorld may come through us, as the great work came through Him.”
PIERRE TEILHARDDE CHORDIN –”The day will come when, after harnessing space, the winds, the tides, and gravitation, we shall harness for God the energies of love. And on that day, for the second time in the history of the world, we shall have discovered fire… Love alone is capable of uniting living beings in such a way as to cornplete and fulfil them, for it alone takes them and joins them by what is deepest in themselves.”
PRAKASH KARAT –”I would urge that MPs of the UFA and Congress be sent to Hiroshima and Nagasaki to see… the effects of nuclear bombs..:.”
QUOTING MARK TWAIT –”If there had been government research establishments in the Stone Age, we would have had absolutely superb flint tools. But no one would have in vented steel.”
QURAN –”Allah raised prophets as bearers of good news and as those Who caution us, as wamers…”
QURAN –”The reward of the evil is the evil thereof, but whosoever forgives and makes amends, his reward is upon Allah.”
QURAN –”We created you from a single pair of a male and a female and made you into nations and tribes, that you might know each other (not that you , might despise each other). Verily the most honoured among you in the sight of God is the one who is the most righteous.”
R W EMERSON –”The possibility of interpretation lies in the identity of the observer with the observed. Each material thing has its celestial side; has its translation, through humanity, into the spiritual and necessary sphere, where it plays a part as indestructible as any other.”
RABINDRANATH TAGORE –”Music is the purest form of art… therefore true poets, they who are seers, seek to express the universe in terms of music…Thesinger has everything within him. The notes come out from his very life. They are not materials gathered from outside.”
RABINDRANATH TAGORE –”When he has the power to see things detached from self-interest and from the insistent claims of the lust of the senses, then alone can he have the true vision of the beauty that is everywhere. Then only can he see that what is unpleasant to us is not necessarily unbeautiful, but has its beauty in truth.”
RABINDRANATH TAGORE –”When the lotus opened, I didn’t notice and went away empty-handed. Only now and again do I suddenly sit up from my dreams to smell a strange fragrance. It comes on the south wind, a vague hint that makes me ache with longing, like the eager breath of summer wanting to be completed. I didn’t know what was so near, or that it was mine. This perfect sweetness blossoming in the depths of my heart.”
RABINDRANATH TAGORE, -“Thou hast made me endless, such is thy pleasure. This frail vessel thou emptiest again and again, Andfillestifever with fresh life. This little flute of a reed thou has carried over hills and dales, and hast breathed through it melodies eternally new. At the immortal touch ofthyhands My little heart loses its limits in joy and gives birth to utterance ineffable. Thy infinite gifts come to me only on these very small hands of mine. Ages pass arid still thou pourest, and still there is room to fill.”
RACHEL NAOMI –”Healing may not be so much about getting better, as about letting go of everything that is not you; all of the expectations, all of the beliefs, and becoming who you are.”
RAGHAVENDRA SWAMI –”Be devoted to the Lord. This devotion should never be blind faith. Accepting the Lord’s supremacy wholeheartedly is true devotion. Blind faith is not devotion. It is only stupidity. We should have devotion not only for the Lord, but also for all other deities and preceptors in keeping with their status.”
RAM DASS –”All spiritual practices are illusions created by illusionists to escape illusion.”
RAM DASS –”The most exquisite paradox; as soon as you give it all up, you can have it all. As long as you want power, you cannot have it. The minute you do not want power, you will have more than you ever dreamed possible.”
RAM DASS –”We are all affecting the world every moment, whether we mean to or not. Our actions and states of mind  matter, because we’re so deeply interconnected with one another. Working on our own ” consciousness is the most important thing that we are doing at any moment, and being love is the supreme creative act.”
RAMANA MAHARSHI –”Even the slightest thought immerses a man in sorrow; when devoid of all thoughts he enjoys imperishable bliss…”
RAMANA MAHARSHI –”The Self existed before the birth of this body and will remain after the death of this body. So it is with the series of bodies taken up in succession. The Self is immortal. The phenomena are changeful and appear mortal. The fear of death is of the body.”
RAMAYAN –”Kaushalya gave birth to a son with all divine attributes like lotus-red eyes, lengthy arms, rosy lips, voice like drumbeat – the one who took birth to delight the Ikshvaku dynasty, who is adored by all the worlds, and who is the greatly blessed epitome of Vishnu, namely Rama.”
RAMDHARI SINGH DINKAR –”The whole world is willing to worship the merciful, humble and the kind.”
RASIK NAAMAVALI –”One will always be in clouds of sorrows till his heart yearns for desires but the day he really meets the world ofBhakti, his life is directed to the path of blessing.”
REINHOLD NIEBUHR –”Grant me the serenity to accept the things i cannot change, The courage to change the things i can, And the wisdom to know the difference.”
RICHARDLE GALLIENNE –”Celestial spirit that doth roll The heart’s sepulchral stone away, Be this our resurrection day, The singing Easter of the soul-0 gentle Master of the Wise, Teach us to say: “I will arise.”
RIG VEDA –”If a householder moulds himself according to the circumstances just like nature moulds Herself according to seasons and performs his Karma then only shall he acquirehappiness.”
RIG VEDA –”We meditate upon the glorious splendour of the Vivifler Divine. May He himself illumine our minds. OM.”
RIG VEDA –”When with Man as their oblation The gods performed their sacrifice, Spring was the melted butter, Summer the fuel, andthe autumn the Oblation. Him they besprinkled on the sacrificial stew, [Primeval] Man, bom in the beginning: With him [their victim], gods, Sadhyas, seers Performed the sacrifice. From this sacrifice completely offered The clotted ghee was gathered up: From this he fashioned beasts and birds, Creatures of the woods and creatures of the village.”
SAKSHI BAJAJ –”Life is the biggest Teacher Chapters fold and unfold Experiences, happy or sad Some stories finished… some untold. In this drama of life We must play our role We must fulfil our duties And search inner peace for our soul.”
SAKSHI BAJAJ –”We all want to do something But do not know where to begin and where to end Why wait for change? This time we will be the change.”
SANIYASNAIN KHAN –”0 Allah, You are the Lord of the Universe, You are the Creator of everything. You take care of everything. 0 Allah, please take care of me. 0 Allah, have mercy on me.”
SATHYA SAI BABA –”Creation represents God’s leela. Its maintenance and dissolution are also God’s leela that take diverse forms. As leela, one can imagine that the entire universe can disappear unless one has cultivated an attitude of equanimity towards good and bad, one cannot claim to have understood God. When entire Creation is the cosmic leela of God, to demarcate a few and sing in terms of those few reveal only a feeble of vision.”
SATHYA SAI BABA –”Life is a challenge, meet it! Life is a dream, realize it! Life is a game, play it! Life is Love, enjoy it!”
SHABISTARI –”Each creature has its being From the One Name, From which it comes forth, And to which it returns, With praises unending.”
SHABISTARI –”There is no coming and going. For what is coming but going?”
SHAKESPEARE –”Be stirring as the time, be fire with fire, threaten the threatener, and outface the brow of bragging horror; so shall inferior eyes, that borrow their behaviour? from the great, grow great by your example and put on the dauntless spirit of resolution.”
SHAKTISANGAMA TANTRA –”Shakti (the Goddess) is the creator of the Universe, and the Universe is her fascinating body; Shakti is the basis of the entire world; She is the intimate substance of any body.”
SIDDHARTHA GAUTAMA –”Practice Makes Perfect To insist on a spiritual practice that served you in the past is to carry the raft on your back after you have crossed the river.”
SIDDHASWARUPANANDA PARAMAHAMSA –”The search for wisdom is a great challenge; to act on wisdom is an even greater challenge.”
SONIA GANDHI –”We have faced enormous problems before and we will face similar (problems) ahead.”
SOPHIA LOREN –”Mistakes are part of the dues one pays for a full life.”
SOREN KIERKEGAARD –”The tyrant dies and his rule ends, the martyr diesandhis rule begins.”
SOWMYA ‘S GITA –”Sukha is the pleasure that a person gets when something good happens and Dukha is the sorrow that he gets when something bad happens. These are the responses that a person has to good or bad circumstances. Also good or bad circumstances are a result of past actions, while joy or sorrow are experiences of present actions. A self-controlled person remains balanced and calm in both.”
SREE SREE MAA –”Raasleela is the unending play of uninterrupted, unfettered love m Purushottam Sri Krishna’s everlasting divine world, Nityaloka. The worldly manifestation of this divine play, which takes place in the ambit of Yogamaya beyond the realms of Kala (Time), was held in the holy soilof SriVrindavan.”
SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB –”According to the karma of past actions, one’s destiny unfolds, even though everyone wants to be so lucky… As you have planted, so do you harvest; such is the field of karma.”
SRI SATHYA SAI BABA –”Forgiveness is Truth itself, it is Righteousness, it is the Veda. It is the supreme virtue in this world. Hence, all people should develop the quality of forgiveness.”
SRI SATHYA SAI BABA –”The Veda existed long before it was discovered and put into practice. Those who have faith in the Veda and its authority can personally experience this. The Veda is bent upon the task of making him know this Truth, and liberating him from this narrowness. Mother Veda is compassionate; she longs to liberate her children from doubt and discontent. She has no desire to inflame or confuse; wise men know this well.”
SRI SATHYA SAI BABA –”Today is the birthday of Rama who is Dharma itself . He is Veda Dharma in human form. He is Anandaswarupa and Dharmaswarupa. On this holy day ofRamnavami you must immerse yourself in the Atma as Dharmaswarupa, as the motivator of the moral life.”
SRI SRI RAVI SHANKAR –”A sense of shame has to be connected with anger and violence. The reason for violence in young people is a sense of pride in anger and violence, not a sense of shame…  When aggression is not considered to be a quality to be ashamed of, this promotes aggression and violence in the whole society, and when aggression and violence are promoted, human values diminish.”
SRIMAD BHAGAVATAM –”As fire assumes the forms of burning objects, so hath the all-pervading Lord assumed the forms of beings and things. As the flames rise and fall but not the fire itself, so birth and death belong to the bodies but not to the Self.”
ST AUGUSTINE –”And he departed from our sight that we might return to our heart, and there find Him. For He departed, and behold. He is here.”
ST AUGUSTINE –”He who is filled with love is filled with God.”
STEPEHEN ISAAC –”The dust of mighty Progress Ues thick upon my skin How do I breathe? How do I produce oxygen? The rape of this earth Has still not seen the last, Of man’s endless greed To fill his pockets fast. Trees chopped down without a thought Lakes vanishing in dumped mud and dirt, My priceless gift of clean pure air I give to man, but he’s not aware. Why would I a tree want to be? In a heartless, dying, Bangalore’s building spree?”
SUFI SAYING –”There are two rules on the spiritual path: Begin and continue.”
SURAH AAL-E-IMRAN –”Think not of those who are slain in Allah’s way as dead. Nay, they live, finding their sustenance in the presence of their Lord.”
SURDAS –”As the moth for love of lotus loses itself in the flower And yet is happy; so am Thy devotee, my Lord As the deer, mesmerized by the melody transfixed near the axe of the huntsman; I am Thy devotee… As the rain bird in its utter loneliness calls its . lover continuously So i wait for a vision of Thee, my Lord For i feel forsaken and lonely and sad.”
SUTTA NIPATA –”Let your love flow outward through the universe, To its height, its depth, its broad extent, A limitless love, without hatred or enmity. Then as you stand or walk, sit or lie down, As long as you are awake, Strive for this with a one-pointed mind; Your lifewill bring heaven to earth.”
SVETASVATARA UPANISHAD –”This whole world the illusion maker projects Out oft his Brahmn. And in it by illusion the other is confined. Now, one should know that Nature is illusion, And that the Mighty Lord is the illusion maker.”
SVETASVATARA UPANISHAD –”Thou art woman, Thou art man; Thou art youthandmaiden… it is Thou alone who, when born, assumes diverse forms.”
SWAMI ASHOKANANDA –”Only the great can achieve the’great. Only the deep can achieve the deep… Try to be deep and profound and see if you cannot find deep and profound truth within yourself. You have to practise those things. If you become superficial, you will become like dust that is being scattered by the wind. You won’t be anything better than that.”
SWAMI KRIPALU –”One who knows crying, knows spiritual practice. If you can cry with a pure heart, nothing else compares to such a prayer. Crying includes all the principles of yoga.”
SWAMI PRABHUPADA –”There are four particular problems with which all of us are familiar: janma, mrityuJara, vyadhi— birth, death, old age and disease. Every kind of : human endeavour is more or less directed towards try ing to bring . about a solution to one of these problems.”
SWAMI RAMDAS –”If you have understood, by ransacking the depths of your desire-ridden heart, the true purpose of your life, you will surely have discovered that nothing short of the attainment of an immortal state would completely satisfy the innate aspiration of your soul. The passing glamours of life, the gilded pleasures pursued, are the will-o-the-wisps that delude the mind…”
SWAMI SIVANANDA SARASWATI –”The one basic aim of this celebration is to-propitiate Shakti, the Goddess in Her aspect as Power, to bestow upon us all wealth, auspiciousness, prosperity, sacred and secular knowledge, and all other potent powers. Whatever be the particular or special request from devotees, whatever boon may be asked of Her, the one thing behind all these is propitiation, worship and linking oneself with Her.”
SWAMI SUKHABODHANANDA –”Don’t postpone loving… Love creates a mystical fullness…”
SWAMI TEJOMAYANANDA –”During Navratri, Durga is invoked first to remove impurities from the mind. Then Lakshmi is invoked to cultivate noble values arid qualities. Finally, Saraswati is propitiated for gaining the highest knowledge of Self.”
SWAMI VIDITATMANAND –”If we celebrate the festival with the objective of divine wealth then we will experience supreme bliss or anand and the desire for worldly (inferior) pleasures will automatically start reducing, leading to ourtrue liberation.”
SWAMI VIVEKANANDA –”Desire, ignorance, and inequality – this is the “trinity of bondage.”
SWAMI VIVEKANANDA –”If you have faith in the 333 million mythological gods, and in all the gods that have to be added to this list, and still have no faith in yourselves, there is no salvation for you. Have faith in yourselves and stand upon that faith and be strong,”
SWEDISH SAYING –”You cannot prevent the birds of sadness flying over your head but you can prevent them from nesting in your hair.”
TAITTIRIYA UPANISHAD –”The Supreme Soul desired ‘Let me become many, let me be bom.’He meditated and created all this, whatever is here. Having created it, into indeed he entered. Having entered it, he became… both the true and the untrue.”
TALMUD –”We see the world, not the way it is, but the way we are.”
TATTUARTHASUTRA –”Have benevolence towards all living beings, joy atthe sight of the virtuous, compassion and sympathy for the afflicted, and tolerance towards the indolent and ill-behaved.”
THE BIBLE –”Blessed are the meek: for they shall inherit the earth.”
THE BUDDHA –”Be a lamp unto yourself. Work out your liberation with diligence.”
THE DALAI LAMA –”I feel that the essence of spiritual practice is your attitude towards others. When you have a pure, sincere motivation, then you have right attitude towards others based on kindness, compassion, love and respect.”
THE EPIC OF GILGAMESH –”…Stand and look upon the wood: they behold the high tops of the cedar, The entrance to the wood, Where Humbaba goes in on lofty tread. The ways are straight, and the path is wrought fair. They see the cedar mount, the dwellings of gods, the sanctuary of the Irnim.”
THE LION KING –”I know that your powers  of retention/Are as wet as a warthog’s backside/ But thick as you are, pay attention/My words are a matter of pride/It’s clear from your vacant expressions/ The lights are not all on upstairs/ But we’re talking kings and successions/ Even you can’t be caught unawares/ So prepare for a chance of a lifetime/ Be prepared for sensational news/ A shining new era/ Is tiptoeing nearer.”
THE UPANISHADS –”The body is mortal and always held by death. It is the abode of that Self which is immortal and without body. When in the body the Self is held by pleasure and pain. So long as he is in the body, he cannot get free from pleasure and pain, But when he is free of the body, then neither pleasure nor pain touches him.”
THE XIV DALAI LAMA –”Compassion and love are not mere luxuries. As the source both of inner and external peace, they are fundamental to the continued survival of our species.”
To live content with small means; to seek elegance rather than luxury, and refinement rather than fashion; to be worthy, not respectable, and wealthy, not rich; to listen to stars and birds, babes and sages, with open heart; to study hard; to think quietly, act frankly, talk gently, await occasions, i hurry never; in a word, to let the spiritual, unbidden and unconscious, grow up through the common – this is my symphony.”
TUKARAM –”My self I’ve rendered up to thee; I’ve cast it from me utterly. Now here before thee, Lord i stand, Attentive to thy least command The self within me is now dead, And thou enthroned in its stead. Yes, this i, Tukaram, testify, No longer now is me or my.”
UTTARADHYAYANA SUTRA –”Without faith there is no knowledge, without knowledge there is no virtuous conduct, without virtues there is no deliverance, and without deliverance there is no perfection (Nirvana).”
VACLAV HAVEL –”The salvation of this human world lies nowhere else than in the human heart, in the human power to reflect, in human meekness and human responsibility.”
VALLABHA ACHARYA –”Which religion gives the greatest joy to God? That which inspires human beings to practise Ahimsa and compassion to all creatures.”
VIJAY KUMAR –”Upholding vachan or promise is a deep-rooted Indie tradition. What happens when you do not keep your promise? The guilt inherent in you is carried forward onto your next life through the atman or soul. Why burden your future with the deeds of this life? You carry either punya (credit) or paap (discredit) onto your next life. Why not absolve yourself of all sins? Never make a promise that you cannot fulfil. Once you make a promise, never go back on it. Live not for this life alone. God awaits you in his kingdom.”
WALT DISNEY –”Born of necessity, the little fellow (Mickey Mouse) literally freed us of immediate worry. He provided the means for expanding our organisation to its present dimensions and for extending the cartoon anima- tion medium towards new entertainment levels. He spelled production liberation for us.”
WALT DISNEY –”When you’re curious, you find lots of interesting things to do.”
WALTER RALEIGH –”Butfrom this earth, this grave, this dust, My God shall raise Me up, I trust.”
WAYNE DYER –”How people treat you is their karma; how you react is yours.”
WILLIAM A WARD –”We must be silent before we can listen. We must listen before we can leam. We must leam before we can prepare. We must prepare before we can serve. We must serve before we can lead.”
WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE –”And be these juggling friends no more believed, That palter with us in a double sense That keep the word of  promise to our ear. And break it to our hope.”
WILLIAM THACKERAY –”‘Tis not the dying for a faith that’s so hard, Master Harry -every man of every nation has done that -’tis the living up to it that is difficult.”
YAJUR VEDA –”Hatred and anger lead to unhappiness, pain and misery. So one should always be soft-spoken and all karma yogis should tread the path of righteousness.”

please

RIB Maintenance – Part 1

Well, it’s nearly the beginning of the summer school holidays, the time of year when most RIBs are used most frequently. With most RIBS being kept on driveways or marina hard standings until being used, I thought it would be worth putting together a few blog posts containing checklists for the RIB season ahead!

In part one, I’ll look at general preparation and hull inspection. Hopefully your RIB isnt quite as bad as this example I found on the web!

GENERAL

Do a general cleaning of hull, deck and RIB tubes using a mild detergent or specialist marine cleaner – 3m’s cleaner and RIB Revive are both good products and can be found at decent marine outlets.

Make sure drains, elephant’s trunks and scuppers are clear of build up from the winter!

Apply a good coat of polish to the RIB hull,  lubricate all moving parts and metal fittings with an appropriate lube.

Clean and polish metal with a good metal polish

If you have teak decks, clean teak and then oil as per instructions

Clean your cover canvas, bimini and dodger if you’re lucky enough to have a fancy “Med Style” RIB with these luxuries!

Check spare parts and tools and replace as necessary

Make sure your documents (VHF, insurance, CEVNI, ICC etc) are onboard and in date

HULL

Check for hull abrasions, scratches, gouges, etc. and repair. If you see blisters on the RIB’s hull as per this picture, seek professional advice!

Check and replace anodes

Check rub rails

Check swim platform and/or ladder

Inspect and test trim tabs

Touch up or replace antifouling paint.

Adrian Leaman

http://adrianleaman.wordpress.com/

The Golden Age of Dutch and Flemish Painting from the Stadel Museum at the Guggenheim

The Golden Age of Dutch and Flemish Painting from the Stadel Museum at the Guggenheim
ertgen van Bilderbeecq’ (1633), by Dutch artist Rembrandt that forms part of the exhibition ‘The golden age’ at the Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao, northern Spain.

Read more on Art Daily

Imagination in the Contemporary World and the Legacy of Romantic Literary Thought

Defining and Using Imagination:

A Legacy of Romanticism to the Modern World

Judyth Vary Baker

 

imagination– Traditionally, the mental capacity for experiencing, constructing or manipulating ‘mental imagery’ (quasi-perceptual experience). Imagination is also regarded as responsible for fantasy, inventiveness, idiosyncrasy, and creative, original and insightful thought in general, and, sometimes, for a much wider range of mental activities dealing with the non-actual, such as supposing, pretending, ‘seeing as’, thinking of possibilities, and even being mistaken.  See representation.

Dictionary of Philosophy of Mind

The definition of Imagination, as seen above, seems to represent elements of concept, as well as existing as a term.  The word is commonly encountered in the literature, descriptions or studies of Romanticism, or the Romantic Literary Movements, that developed and bloomed in the early-to-mid nineteenth century.  The student who is the product of the newer millennia, however, may have a different understanding of “imagination” than that envisioned by the Romantics, just as the word “Romantic” itself may not adequately prepare today’s naive student for the nature of the content of the poetry and literature of the nineteenth century that they might explore, hoping to appropriate Shakespearean or Drydenesque expressions with which to entrance their lovers.

It is important that “imagination” and “Romanticism” be understood as it was by the Romantics. For that reason, I have added the term “satire,” (which I haven’t seen used a great deal in the literature in connection with “imagination” and “Romanticism).in order to better orient and connect the modern student’s thoughts to what was a driving force behind the literary productions of the Romantics.

Although it is seems reasonable to assume that the Romantic definition of “imagination” seems to have evolved as a result of long thought based on then-modern ideas and ideals of the nineteenth century, and the influence of prior great lights who had pondered and labored to formulate their own definition, it seems that the great eighteenth century ideals that were expressed at that time were based upon the same philosophical definitions for “imagination” that –later— were looked upon by our young Romantics as fodder to foment literary rebellion, even though:

“(While) The common thesis of eighteenth-century optimists was…The proposition that this is the best of possible worlds;….(which) gave rise to the belief that the adherents of this doctrine….(were) insensible to all the pain and frustration and conflict which are manifest through the entire range of sentient life… far from asserting the unreality of evils, the philosophical optimist in the eighteenth century was chiefly occupied in demonstrating their necessity (Lovejoy 319).”

Lovejoy adds that “the logical exigencies of the optimistic argument involved…ideas pregnant with important consequences for both ethics and aesthetics, since they were to be among the most distinctive elements in what perhaps best deserves to be named ‘Romanticism’ (319).”

The definition of Imagination, in fact, as it was slowly formulated, explored, and finally used by many Romantics, probably needs to be studied along with the contextual consideration of satire, and of the ideals behind the rebellious writings of the Romantics, in order to see how the ideas of the eighteenth century concerning Imagination were refined, and then redefined, perhaps to help buttress those philosophical arguments which they created to substantiate and legitimize their rebellion, which was, broadly speaking, arrayed against eighteenth century sentimentalism and superficiality.  The general result of this rebellion was a “Romantic” idealism which fascinated not only their generation, but those to come.  I think we have inherited from the Romantics our present notions of Imagination, which continue to have an impact upon the definition of imagination with which the layman and the psychologist must deal today.

I have been reading a little of Coleridge and Hazlitt, and was struck by some of Hazlitt’s love letters, which for me epitomize the ‘romantic’ in “Romanticism” while alerting me to the elements of both imagination and satire which he employed so well in Liber Amoris.   Marilyn Butler, who analyzes the way the Romantics often presented thinly-masked, biting and satiric autobiographic self-images in her essay “Satire and the Images of Self in the Romantic Period: the Long Tradition of Hazlitt’s Liber Amoris,” commented that

“..an age’s self-image may not be as distinct as posterity’s view of it.  The so-called Romanticists did not know at the time that they were supposed to do without satire…it is easy to exaggerate the break with the recent literary past, or with that portion of it we now designate Augustinian.  Byron’s well-known tribute to Pope may have been controversial; Scott’s even better-advertised tribute to Dryden was less so…(210).”

In the matter of Coleridge, his well-known revisions chart the changes and fluidity in Romantic evolution of ideas, ideals, imagination. Says Stillinger, who gives us a whole book of Coleridge’s revisions:

“If Coleridge had written each of his poems once and once only, there would be no problem. As it is, we think that he did, and hence arise many oversimplifications and errors in our approach to his poetry. Chiefly these are the idea that for each of the poems there is but a single definitive text; the idea that the single definitive text of each poem must necessarily be a late one (in practical terms because there is none other in sight, in theoretical terms because such has been the tendency of generalizations about textual authority for most of the present century); and then the conclusion from these that Coleridge produced his late texts early in his poetic career. (9-10).”

I have chosen these two quotations to illustrate two tendencies which we have, as human beings who happen to read: one, to identify a movement in literature as well-defined by its proponents and adherents during its existence, particularly at the hey-day or height of the manifestation of its existence, to those who follow (and who always have such remarkable hindsight), and secondly, that we tend to believe that the products of such a movement were created, for the most part, as if sculpted from stone.  But, as Stillinger makes clear, “In the theoretical framework of my study, (Coleridge) produced a new definitive version, the “final” text that he intended to stand at the moment, every time he revised a text (10).”

And why did Coleridge revise his work?

Many poets do so: I revise my own work because I change, and what I’ve written no longer weighs or feels or says quite what I meant, or I no longer wish it to say what I once wished it to say, or, perhaps, I have gained a greater sensitivity or ability to communicate what could not be said well at the prior instance (sometimes revisions weaken original work, though!).

Of perhaps all our Romantics, Coleridge has left for us the most sophisticated analysis of what he was about in the matter of writing, editing, criticism and the composition of poetry.

And, happily for us, he submerges himself into a long discussion – one might call it almost a tirade, in its exhaustive energy and vehemence – about imagination. Coleridge does not hesitate to take us on a philosophical and theological journey of great complexity in his attempt to fully explore the topic of imagination.

From a letter dated June 23, 1834:

“You may conceive the difference in kind between the Fancy and the Imagination                      in this way, that if the check of the senses and the reason were withdrawn, the first would become delirium, and the last mania.  The Fancy brings together images which have no connexion natural or moral, but are yoked together by the poet by means of some accidental coincidence….(while) (t)he Imagination modifies images, and gives unity to variety; it sees all things in one, il peu nell’ uno. There is the epic imagination, the perfection of which is in Milton; and the dramatic, of which Shakespeare is the absolute master (http: Imagination in Coleridge 3).”

Coleridge’s theorizing may be clear to some: to my mind, he’s abstruse and convoluted in his thinking, and a variety of interpretations of what he meant about Imagination exists. What seems to be clear is that for Coleridge there are two sorts of Imagination, a primary and a secondary kind.  Even so, this distinction between ‘pure imagination’ and ‘secondary imagination’ is apparently not clear enough to allow all other critics to agree with the analysis offered by Robert Penn Warren, according to notes from the source quoted directly above, as displayed in Coleridge’s The Rime of the Ancient Mariner, where Penn Warren argues that “The Ancient Mariner is a poem of ‘pure imagination” in the sense that its subject is the poetic, or Secondary, Imagination itself.

Whalley (1946-7) believes that: “whether consciously or unconsciously” the albatross is “the symbol of Coleridge’s creative imagination.”  House (1953) opposes the rigidity of Penn Warren’s symbolic analysis and argues that the poem is “part of the exploration…part of the experience which led Coleridge into his later theoretic statements (as of the theory of Imagination) rather than a symbolic adumbration of the theoretic statements themselves”  (84, 113).

It might be useful, then, to take a glance at Imagination’s root definitions, as those distant but great philosophers,  Plato and Aristotle, thought of it.  After all, the Romantics seemed to have looked at the classic definitions, too.  Basically, the Dictionary of Philosophy of Mind gives us a handy distillation of the definition of imagination as proposed by that philosopher of philosophers,

“Aristotle…(who) tells us that “imagination [phantasia] is (apart from any metaphorical sense of the word) the process by which we say an image [phantasma] is presented to us” (De Anima. 428a 1-4).  It has been questioned in recent times whether the Greek words phantasia and phantasm are really equivalent to “imagination” and'(mental) image” as heard in contemporary usage.  However, there can be little doubt that, until very recent times, theoretical discussion of phantasia, its Latin translation imaginatio, and their etymological descendants, continued to be rooted in the concepts introduced by Aristotle and the problems arising from his rather elliptical explanation of them” (http:1).

And for a long time, it might be argued,  people really didn’t stray very far from this earliest known standardized definition for Imagination:

Very arguably this is true of all Western philosophical schools: Stoics, Epicureans               and Neoplatonists quite as much as avowed Aristoteleans; Muslims as much as              Christians; and, come to that, Empiricists quite as much as Rationalists” (http:1).

While “the connection between imagination and perception is the more fundamental,” it should also be pointed out that it is also ‘postulated’ that a difference exists between common sense [sensus communis] and phantasia, either of which can generate phantasmata,

“but when their immediate cause is an object directly before us the tendency is to refer to them as percepts, and to the process as perception; when memory of previously observed things is the source, reference will more likely be to memory and imagination. Thus imagination came to be particularly associated with thinking about things that are not actually currently present to the sense: things that are not really there” (2).

Though this is an oversimplified overview, it does roughly correspond to the situation as I have investigated it, and it only took a few lines of reading time to tell it to you.

Today, the ideas behind the words ‘fantasy’ and ‘imagination’ are likely to evoke these sorts of thoughts:

“…we sometimes find modern writers making a distinction between “memory                    imagery” and “imagination imagery”, or even restricting the use of “imagination”                  (and, a fortiori, “imaginary”) to thoughts about things that have never (or never                     yet) been actually experienced….(f)or some reason, words…such as “fantasy”,                  “fancy”, or “phantasm”, seem to…connote unreality even more strongly than                         “imagination” and its cognates…” (2).

And then we have Descartes, who links everything scientifically to flesh, brain and matter, the rational mind connected, it seems, to the body via the “Cartesian imagination/sensus communis” at the “pineal surface,” “the lynchpin that holds together the two metaphysical worlds of Cartesianism.  As it had done for Aristotle, the imagination/sensus communis mediated between the bodily senses, and the {now incorporeal) rational mind” (3).

When the Romantics came along, the ideas of Philostratus (among others) were given fresh life as

“discussion concerning imagination shifted away from cognitive theory and                       epistemology, and towards its role in original, creative thinking, especially in the                arts” (3). In other words, imagination was given value, along with passion, and                       even Coleridge [despite all his attempts to formalize his definitions along                               philosophic lines] “relied heavily on Kant and post-Kantian German idealism (and                      Plotinus….)…(with) results (from a philosophical perspective) fragmentary and                 largely incoherent” (4).

This brings us to the twentieth century, and Sartre (who seems to have respected the idea of imagination), stands against an array of “analytical philosophers (who)….seem to doubt whether the imagination even exists.  Gilbert Ryle declared, in The Concept of Mind, that “There is no special Faculty of Imagination, occupying itself single-mindedly in fancied viewings and hearings” 91949), and this soon became the widely accepted viewpoint” (4).

The fundamental concept of internal imagery and functioning imagination as a real process of mind has received some support from “cognitive psychologists such as….Paivio…Shepard, and….Kosslyn” as it has become once more ‘respectable as a topic for experimental psychological investigation” (4).  But that doesn’t mean that “imagination” has regained status as anything more than “a representationally dependent auxiliary to other, more fundamental forms of mental representation, and current theories of image formation hardly aspire to the central place in cognitive theory once occupied by the imagination’ (5).

This is actually quite a fall from an almost pre-eminent position of consideration in the cognitive/creative processes as envisioned by Coleridge and others in the Romantic movement, even when the difficulties that Hume brought to its definition divided opinions: “According to Hume ‘Tis an established maxim in metaphysics, That…nothing we imagine is absolutely impossible (Treatise, I,ii,2)” (5).  Without wading through examples that can prove to us how we can imagine some impossible things, and that the converse of Hume’s observation can lead to prickly non sequiturs, there is some physiological evidence available now that visual imagery and imagination are neurologically generated and can, in the future, no doubt be controlled:

“Neurological patients who have lost the retinotopically mapped regions in one cerebral hemisphere, leaving them blind in the corresponding half of their visual field, show certain impaired imaginary abilities in the blinded hemifield… However, other patients suffering from cortical blindness due to damage in these areas seem to have relatively normal imagery. Furthermore, some patients with localized damage in the retinotopically mapped areas experience vivid, well-formed “visual hallucinations” (i.e. imagery that is outside of conscious control–they do not typically mistake it for reality) precisely in the affected (blind or “blindsighted”) parts of their visual fields.  This suggests that these brain areas cannot be essential for visual imagery” (http: Are Theories of Imagery…..6).

The above quotation may offer the reader a glimpse of the mechanistic and rigid way in which ideas and definitions of “imagination” and “imagery” are currently being approached by leading investigators of imagery and imaginative phenomena  in the late twentieth cenury (the above quote refers to some of the results of recent investigations of Kosslyn, et al (1992-1997).  There is not much room for any living, breathing corpus of an evolving definition for imagination here.  It has already been decided that everything that emanates from that lump of complex tissue and fluids known as the ‘brain’ is limited by its physiological characteristics, parameters, and functions.

It is rather like analyzing Kubla Khan as the mere product of the influence of opium–as if there will ever be another Kubla Khan!

So worrying about the “definition” of imagination/Imagination just might be a waste of time for the poet, the writer, the artist.  I have sometimes wondered if James Joyce’s outpourings in Ulysses was a response elicited not only by his knowledge of so many languages —as if they struck a freight train crashing against his skull—but also as the result of mercury treatments he is theorized to have taken in an attempt to cure the syphilis that claimed his eye and the sanity of his daughter (not, you won’t find more than a few papers on that subject— it’s research I’ve done, myself, from medical evidence I discovered in the 1970’s about Joyce, his wife and children, so far as I am aware).

In fact, if  “Romanticism” indeed appropriated “Imagination” as a living definition –though that’s surely a simplified viewpoint–a definition that rested on a full understanding of the past, and which was being stressed and challenged by the skeptical attitudes of those whose reliance on science alone would render blossoms, imagination, and baby monkeys alike as only topics to analyze—then it was possibly the last stand attempt of creative human minds to secure a place of respect for what the mind could produce, for which the world might not have a place, nor understand, nor be ready.

It is the very liveliness of Imagination as the Romantics attempted to define it– aware of its past meanings–of how Milton and Blake and the ancient philosophers gave Imagination a place of respect in the dynamics of human thought— along with vibrant arguments over past and present agreements about what Imagination really stood for (and which it might no longer, for similar reasons today, stand for), that tends to attract me. It behooves us to see if we agree that ‘imagination” as we think it is today resembles at all the Romantic’s notion about it, or not.

To be able to give a name to that factor that affects your creative thought as does the concept of “imagination’ should not slay it or render it lifeless: imagination remains with the human race, recognized or not, so long as people dare to think for themselves. I like what Wordsworth calls “the imaginative will” because of the empowerment this term gives to the will that is adorned, amidst its potential for reasonableness, by the focused intellect.  Margaret Sherwood says that Wordsworth, “searching for the single intellectual formula that would solve the complex problem of existence…(was) reduced by….dogmatic fatalism to depression that was well-night despair:

“The crisis of that strong disease, the soul’s last and lowest ebb….was a                              questioning as to the reality of the existence of the human will, of the power of                        choice, and of the adequacy of the reason to give grounds for choice….the story of              Wordsworth’s recovery, as recorded in prelude, is one of the great chapters in                human biography.  In reaction from temporary submission to (the) doctrine…that                man (is) the driven victim of external forces…the young poet (became)                                …conscious…of creative power within…(and) (h)is faith in “the imaginative will,”  as a creative power, capable of vivifying the human soul at the pure sources of being, he ever after expressed in his poetry and…life” (182-183).

The power of his understanding of the relationship between the creative powers that Wordsworth felt flowing through him – imagination, and his will to turn this creative force into a creation by choice – by the exertion of his own will, has motivational value for the writer and the poet that transcends any technical, scientific definitions of “imagery” and “imagination” that have been produced from exploring traumatized and bisected monkey (or human) brains.

Imagination was recognized in various, past cultures as possessing its own particular dimensions, which now will be refined through Wordsworth, who redefines imagination as a choice which may acted upon by the will.

Today’s students, largely exposed to scientific method and scientific jargon, have not   experienced the making of a major definition in the matter of creativity: it is almost a fearful thing to call oneself “creative.”  To admit having a big imagination is to invite speculation as to one’s ultimate mental stability: there are already correlations that exist between creativity and manic depression, creativity and insanity. Unfortunately, the fact that a person in danger of insanity, or who is mentally unstable, might resort to a creative stratagem in order to survive or to improve one’s grasp, by the will, of reality, through the act of creation, does not seem to be understood in that light, and I suggest that this is an unfortunate oversight.

As for the rest of us, the use of imagination as a tool to explore realistic outcomes after making a certain choice provides a basis for understanding the utilitarian advantages of such a function.  The viability of imagination as a source of attaining logical order in our lives, having explored, via the imagination, the likely and unlikely consequences of certain choices,  is generally ignored.  And of course, that same range of choice, developed as a result of contemplating imagined outcomes and scenarios, allows the artist, the writer, the poet, the logician and the scientist to make better creative choices in their respective fields.

Imagination, even today, might be understood, then, under Wordsworth’s interpretation as a device or resource— a potential means, one might say– to obtain or to take advantage of a strategy with which to cope with events or ideas potentially unendurable, or, to produce new ones, relative to, or irrelevant to, one’s surroundings, milieu, and environment, with the understanding that to exert Imagination is to utilize a key element in the successful adaptation, or expression, of the human being.

The Wordsworthian definition of Imagination empowers.  It is a passport to new and unimagined events, to possible worlds otherwise unable to be entered without permission from some higher authority, whether deity or dictator.   I suggest that the Romantic approach to Imagination allows the mind a degree of freedom for radical exploration which modern definitions might eventually deny to us (if we do not wish to be regarded as somehow overly creative, and, therefore, possibly mentally unstable, etc.).

In all such considerations, the element of satire should not be ignored.  Imagination, alone, in any realization as a movement by Romantic writers/poets worthy of adoption in our own philosophy, must not exclude the consideration of the role of satire in its implementation.  Satire can mask or disguise the creative product, allowing it to be a sugar-coating for what otherwise might be a difficult pill for a contemporary world – glutted on scientific thought –  to swallow.  So that we might get a better grasp of what “imagination” might have meant to Romantics, rather than what it now means to us, looking back at them, we need to consider that the role of satire has been somewhat overlooked, I think, as an influence in the works of the Romantics.

I consider their satirical asides and creations as a rational response to the social pressures which keep so many writers and artists pathetically poor.  Just as farmers are at the bottom of the heap, supplying food to all the world, and nevertheless  receiving less than anyone else for what they sell  (as that food is processed and becomes more expensive per consumable unit, which the farmer must  purchase back, keeping him poorer), so, too, artists, poets, and writers produce thoughts and ideas which others eventually adapt and enjoy, while the benefits of their labors, which employ Imagination, rarely return to them in the form of monetary rewards or respect.

Romantic Imagination was a dynamic concept that helped spur the fearless production of works which may have originated as responses to yet earlier works: the whole chain was almost a living structure, both dynamic and active, composed of a socially interacting set of creative people, who generally produced their works with vigor until they died.  As the Romantics died, their creative outlook, their definition of Imagination, died with them.   Their concept of Imagination yet struggled for expression, here and there: I see impressionistic painting, stream of consciousness writing, and other marvelous instances of the Romantic legacy still asserting itself in the works of the last great believers in imagination.

It is important to understand that explosions of creativity typically are associated with new things, or new ways of looking at things. It is imagination both stimulates and that is stimulated in this way, and it is the definition of imagination that was central to Coleridge’s almost desperate search for understanding the relevance of creativity in the grid-locked universe described by scientific method.  Coleridge’s attempt to define Imagination reaches an apex in Chapter Thirteen of the Biographica Literaria, a statement so famous I won’t repeat it here, but of which Thomas McFarland says

“Not only is there no preparation for the threefold distinction of Chapter Thirteen in Coleridge’s previous writings, there is none even in the Biographica…in Chapter Thirteen…in an astonishing volte face, he writes himself a letter in which…(he) proceeds simply to dump upon (the reader) the threefold distinction…”(210).

Indeed, the spontaneous assertion of a threefold property to Imagination may have had its real roots in Blake’s opinions, according to McFarland: “To cast off Bacon, Locke & Newton from Albions covering, to take off his filthy garments, & clothe him with Imagination…” (215)

And yet Coleridge wanted to reconcile mysticism and Imagination, systematically if possible, with “the dictates of common sense with the conclusions of scientific Reasoning.”  For Coleridge

“…shared the respect of his age for science and scientific theories, the confidence that human experience could be explained as physical nature could be explained, that there were laws of human nature as well as laws of motion….What he required was a means of reconciling the experience of the oasis [i.e. of visionary insight] with acceptable conceptions of physical and psychological reality” (216).

Not an ignoble venture.

Coleridge was aware that there is an element of passivity in the idea that Imagination is merely a by-product of a physical brain undergoing some permutations which cannot at present (but eventually might always) be controlled.  McFarland shows how Coleridge tried to attack some of the difficulties that arise in relying only upon scientific concepts of imagination.   When Coleridge understands not only Kant, but the objections of the philosopher Tetens, he begins to breathe more easily. An excerpt of Tetens’ thought will reveal what Coleridge was learning:

“‘Dichkraft can create no elements, no fundamental materials, can make only nothing out of nothing, and to that extent is no creative power. It can only separate, dissolve, join together, blend; but precisely thereby it can produce new images, which from the standpoint of our faculty of differentiation are discrete representations.’

There is accordingly a Selbstthatigheit— a spontaneous activity–in the “receptivity of the psyche” …a perceiving, reproducing and co-adunating power” (222).

 

Coleridge, noted McFarland, as especially found in Chapter Eight of his Biographica Literaria, embraced ideas such as these expressed by Tetens (even more, McFarlane asserts rather convincingly,  than those of Kant),  which gave him the intellectual relief he sought from the Newtonian outlook which had so depressed him:

“Newton was a mere materialist – Mind in his system is always passive – a lazy                  Looker-on an external World.  If the mind be not passive, if it indeed be made in                     God’s Image, & that too in the sublimed sense— the Image of the Creator— there               is ground for suspicion, that any system built on the passiveness of the mind  must               be false, as a system” (222).

While I cannot embrace Coleridge’s precise religious interpretations, nor, for that matter, the twofold or threefold vision of Imagination, with which we could occupy the timber of a whole tree made into paper, McFarlane makes another interesting argument that “the lineage of the secondary imagination extends not only backwards beyond Kant to Teens, but also beyond Teens to Leibniz, and finally beyond Leibniz to Plato.”

And that makes all the difference: Coleridge contemplates this unbroken succession of thought (as I think we, too, might profit from doing), and thus,

“With antecedents of this kind,….Coleridge’s threefold theory of imagination                     actually bears less on poetry than it does on those things that always mattered                     most to him— as they did to Leibniz and to Kant— that is, “the freedom of the will, the immortality of the soul, and the existence of God” (224-226).

With the advent of the computer, we entered a new frontier: we did not know how to explore it all – its functions and potential were not defined for us in advance. Of itself, the computer offered the human mind endless variations using Imagination.  Once more, marvelous, creative things can happen, because we aren’t fettered by a totally mechanistic interpretation of everything that we do. It is a new creative frontier, waiting to be expanded and developed.

It will be tamed faster than any frontier behind it, as we speed up everything we process through that same medium – science – that now rules most of the domain of our minds with its interpretations of what is sane, what is not, what is real, what is not, and – no doubt soon to come – will dare dicate to us what we might be allowed to create, and what we will dare not.  As evidenced in police states, satire, wit and humor can unlock thought-prisons.  Satire, in particular, provides the creative imagination its last foot-hold on the mountain of which reason is King. In this King-of-the-Mountain scenario, satire cannot win, cannot wrest away any lasting laurels for Imagination. But it can challenge the King with a dissident voice.

.   Says critic Marilyn Butler: “With the passing of time, critics seem to have become less rather than more aware of the satirical and intellectual strain in Romantic writing…” (191).  That is because satire’s shafts strike most deeply into contemporary targets, some now so remote to our imaginations (dare I use the word?) that we no longer see the original target, if even the direction of the arrows.

That  richness of potential for creativity (that a term such as “imagination” might have had on the minds of those sophisticates and idealists who thought of themselves as exemplars and pioneering rebels embracing Romanticism) as a holistic and all-pervading philosophy with a utilitarian function – dealing with a world in which man found himself suddenly aware that he might be in charge of his universe, that he might be standing alone, and alone responsible for the events of the world in which he lived,  unsure whether or not his actions were be ordained by God(s) or imposed upon him by happenstance and instinct — this freedom may be denied us in our modern day.  But not satire.  Satire breaks through, sharp and sincere.

Morality and new meaning, when a human being could imagine good and evil as choices that might be made without interference from a higher moral power –  these will not be topics of debate in a future where everything will be explained by DNA and environment.  Nature was once man’s teacher, and the forces of his own nature his dictator, with the whole wide world opening before him, ready to explore and conquer.  What was imagined could become real. What seemed to be real did not have to be substantiated by the senses.  Today, using imagination – not mere formulae for success – in a world where scientists declare what we should or should not think, is the hallmark of an intellectual rebel.

Our challenge, today, is to preserve “Imagination” from any definition at all.

With this in mind, look once more, please, at the “definition” which was absorbed so rapidly by you, the reader, at the beginning of this article:

 

imagination– Traditionally, the mental capacity for experiencing, constructing or manipulating ‘mental imagery’ (quasi-perceptual experience). Imagination is also regarded as responsible for fantasy, inventiveness, idiosyncrasy, and creative, original and insightful thought in general, and, sometimes, for a much wider range of mental activities dealing with the non-actual, such as supposing, pretending, ‘seeing as’, thinking of possibilities, and even being mistaken.  See representation.

Dictionary of Philosophy of Mind

Note the last part of this definition: ‘the mental capacity for’ ‘even being mistaken.’ To have the liberty to err, to be mistaken, to possess the ability to think about “the thing which is not,” as those all-logical Houyhnhnms of Jonathan Swift’s satirical imagination could not imagine – the right to be wrong that rests at the center of “Imagination” – this is a right and option we should guard as our unspeakably valuable creative heritage and treasured legacy from the Romantic tradition.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Thanks to Dr. Joseph Riehl (University of Louisiana at Lafayette) who suggested that I expand this essay.

 

 

 

Works Cited

Coleridge, Samuel Taylor. S.T. Coleridge Notebooks. Kathleen Coburn and Merton Christianson, eds. 4 vols. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1990.

_______________________. Biographica Literaria. Chapts. 1-22. 1815. Etext available

at Project Gutenberg; for relevant extracts, see Imagination in Coleridge (below).

Butler, Marilyn. “Satire and the Images of self in the Romantic Period: the Long Tradition of Hazlitt’s Liber Amoris.” English Satire and the Satiric Tradition.  Ed. Claude Rawson.

Padstow, Great Britain: Basil Blackwell, 1984.  Pp. 209-225.

Dictionary of Philosophy of Mind, Voice of the Shuttle e-link.

<http://www.artsci.wustl.edu/~philos/MindDict/imagination.html>

acquired 9/22/2003

Edwards, S. T. “Master Concepts in Literary Study: The Moral Imagination”

<http://www.stedwards.edu/newc/green/moral.htm>   Pp. 1-5.

acquired 8/30/2000

Hobbes, Thomas. The Leviathan.

<http://osu.orst.edu/instruct/phl1302/texts/hobbes/leviathan-b.html> pp. 6-22

acquired 5/20/2004

“Imagination in Coleridge.” E-textual Extracts from University of Ottawa transcripts of The Letters of S.T. Coleridge. <http://aix1.uottawa.ca/~phoenix/im-51.htm> Pp 2-6.

acquired 7/28/99

 

Lovejoy, Arthur O. “Optimism and Romanticism.” Eighteenth Century English Literature: Modern Essays in Criticism.  Ed. James L. Clifford. New York: oxford UP, 1959. Pp. 319-343.

McFarland, Thomas. “Theory of Secondary Imagination.” New Perspectives on Coleridge and Wordsworth. Ed. Geoffrey Hartman.  New York & London: Columbia UP, 1972. Pp. 194-246.

Sherwood, Margaret.  “Wordsworth: The Imaginative Will.” Undercurrents of Influence in English Romantic Poetry. New York: AMS Press, 1934, 1971.

Stllinger, Jack.  Coleridge and Textual Instability: The Multiple Versions of the Major Poems.

New York & Oxford: Oxford UP, 1994.  Pp. 1-140.

Thomas, Nigel J. T.  “Are Theories of Imagery Theories of Imagination?  An Active Perception

Approach to Conscious Mental Contact.” In press: Cognitive Science

<http://web,calstatela.edu/faculty/nthomas/im-im/im-im.htm> pp. 1-40

acquired 9/22/99

 

Some Additional Readings:

Babbitt, Irving.  “The Problem of the Imagination.” On Being Creative and Other Essays, New York: Houghton Mifflin & Co., 1932.

Baker, J. V. The Sacred River: Coleridge’s Theory of the Imagination.  Baton Rouge;

LA State UP, 1957. (This is not me!)

Baars, B. J. “When Are Images Conscious? The Curious Disconnection between Imagery and Consciousness in the Scientific Literature.”  Consciousness and Cognition, 5, 1996.  Pp. 261-264.

Tyler, T. L. “Elements of Plato in Coleridge’s Theory of the Imagination.” Essay for

Professors McGaughey and Dalsant, Dept. Of English, Humboldt University.

<http://www.humboldt1.com/~tyler/writing/essays/literature/plato_in_coleridge.html>

acquired 9/30/2003

 

Judyth Vary Baker is an American writer, poet and artist who lives in Europe. She is dedicated to publishing poetry, fiction, non-fiction, and scholarly and literary articles online for not only students and scholars, but also for those generally denied access to literary and scientific journals on the Internet because they are not attending university classes or are not permanently situated in ivory towers.

Reform of the background and current situation of institutions

From institutions to the enterprise, go through enormous changes, including changes in the concept of the staff of the most important.

Wang Ying Status institutions Institutions is a concept with Chinese characteristics, the equivalent of public services in other countries. It is defined as: the establishment of the State for the purpose of social welfare social service organizations, is organized by the State authorities or other organizations to use state-owned assets by engaging in education, science and technology, culture, health and other activities of the organization (1998, the State Council Decree No. 252).

Institutions have the following characteristics: Service?? For economic construction and social development;

Public welfare?? Established for the purpose is for public well-being, itself a non-profit institutions, heavy social benefits;

Public sex?? 95% of the institutions is the use of state-owned assets held, there are a small part of the private non-enterprise organization;

Entity?? A legal entity, a certain degree of human, financial autonomy;

Cultural?? Institutions are mostly intelligence-intensive organizations, the intellectual focus, concentrate about 60% of China’s intellectuals.

Institutions are also very large scale in China, with 1.3 million institution, employing 3,000 people, equivalent to the number of workers of state enterprises 2 / 3, total employment in the public sector 34% of the country for business unit’s financial spending accounts for more than 30% of expenditure. Institutions widely distributed, mainly in education, health, science and technology, culture, and ATM services in areas such as types of extremely complicated, and is the second largest corporate community. Institutions in the proportion of GDP, about 5% to 10%. Largest education, health, research and culture in four sectors, accounting for 5.1% of GDP.

State institutions had invested considerable resources, such as 60% of highly educated labor force, annual recurrent expenditure of about 1 / 3, non-operating state-owned assets, most of the large number of state-owned land.

With the market economy, and institutions has been hampered by the existing system operation and development institutions. Mainly as follows: regardless of political affairs, is unclear; management single, rigid management mechanism; management autonomy is not in place; agency nature of the administration of; value orientation deviation; management is not standardized; officers can not reasonably flow; distribution of incentive mechanism ; and so on. Why

Reform Therefore, the state should reform public institutions, the main way is restructuring. The current restructuring of institutions is fundamental to unlimited liability by the state to assume limited responsibility for change, but also from a planned, semi-planned economy to a market economy, and reform of state-owned enterprises are very similar. The restructuring of public institutions on the socio-economic development of great significance.

First, the restructuring will help service industry. China’s per capita GDP in 2003 breaking 1000 U.S. dollars, marking the economic structure will undergo profound changes in the characteristics of the services sector in the national economy has risen. But our service is still quite backward, because the traditional institutions and mechanisms to restrict the institutional development of service industry.

Secondly, the restructuring will contribute to the socialist market economic system improved. Reform of institutions involved in property rights system, labor and personnel system, social insurance system, regulatory framework and government functions, and many other reforms, improve the socialist market economic system the difficulty and focus.

Third, restructuring contribute to economic and social development.

I am an expert from Frbiz Site, usually analyzes all kind of industries situation, such as terminal crimping tool , donut cutter.

Glossary Of Wildfire Terms

Part of a series on

Wildland

Firefighting

Main articles

Wildfire   Bushfire

Wildfire suppression

Agencies

National Interagency Fire Center

USFS   BLM

CALFIRE   CALFIRE Aviation

New South Wales Rural Fire Service   Country Fire Authority, Victoria   Country Fire Service, South Australia

Tactics & Equipment

Incident Command System

Aerial firefighting

Controlled burn

Firebreak   Fire trail

Fire lookout tower

Fire-retardant gel

Fire fighting foam

Fire retardant   MAFFS

Helicopter bucket   Driptorch

Personnel

Handcrew   Hotshots

Helitack   Smokejumper

Rappeller   Engine crew

Lists

List of wildfires

Glossary of wildfire terms

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The following is a glossary of wildfire terms. Except where noted, terms are taken from a 1998 Fireline Handbook transcribed for a Conflict 21 counter-terrorism studies website by the Air National Guard.

Separate glossaries for firefighting terms and firefighting equipment are also available.

Contents: Top  09 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Aerial canopy: Fuel type consisting of trees having few low branches, making it less susceptible to ignition by low-intensity fires.

Aerial firefighting (or air attack): Use of aircraft in support of ground resources to combat wildfires, often most effective in initial attack in light fuels.

Air drop: Delivery of supplies or retardant from the air. Supplies can be dropped by parachute. Retardant is dropped in a single “salvo” or one or more “trails”, the size of which is determined by the wind and the volume, speed and altitude of the airtanker (usually no less than 200 feet above the drop zone).

Air operations: Group tasked with coordinating aerial-based observation, supply, rescue and suppression at a wildfire.

Air Tactical Group Supervisor or Air Attack: Coordinates air resources for attack of a fire.

Airtanker: Fixed-wing aircraft certified by FAA as being capable of transport and delivery of 600 to 3,0000 gallons of water or other liquid or powder fire retardants. Formerly referred to as “borate bombers” before borate-based retardants became less desirable. Often accompanied by a spotter plane.

Anchor point: An advantageous location, usually a barrier to fire spread, from which to start constructing a fireline. The anchor point is used to minimize the chance of being flanked (or outflanked) by the fire while the line is being constructed.

B

Backburn: Precautionary fire set downwind of main fire for controlled fuel clearing by “backing” it into the main fire, similar to burnout, below, which occurs adjacent to control line.

Backfire: A fire set along the inner edge of a fireline to consume the fuel in the path of a wildfire and/or change the direction or force of the fire convection column.

Bambi bucket: collapsible bucket for lifting and moving water or other fire retardant with a helicopter. (Note: The name was in use many years before the trademark owner claimed it in 1983.)

Barrier: Any obstruction to the spread of fire. Typically an area or strip devoid of combustible fuel.

Base: (1) staging and/or command center location for fire operations; (2) starting location of a fire; (3) base camp: location for eating, sleeping, etc., near staging or command center.

Berm: Soil heaped on the downhill side of a traversing fireline below a fire, to trap rolling firebrands.

Blackline: A condition where no combustible fuels remain between the fireline and the main fire.

Blowup: Sudden increase in fireline intensity or rate of spread of a fire sufficient to preclude direct control or to upset existing suppression plans. Often accompanied by violent convection and may have other characteristics of a firestorm.

Boise Interagency Fire Center (BIFC): The former name of the National Interagency Fire Center (see below); often pronounced as “biff-see”.

Booster hose, booster pump, booster reel: small solid hose on a reel connected to a small pump fitted to a water tank on a vehicle. Booster pump also refers to pump in a relay series for pumping uphill beyond the lift of the previous pump.

Brush blade: Rake attachment for cutting or ripping brush and roots out of a fireline.

Brush hook: Cutting tool used to clear brush, longer than a machete, usually with a heavy, solid,curved blade bolted to the end of an arm’s-length handle.

Brush truck: Small fire truck outfitted for wildland fire. Also called a “Type 6 Engine.”

Bump up: To move to another location. Can refer to anything from moving to another location on a fireline, to an entire crew moving to another fire. “Bump back” means to return to your previous location. In the “bump” system of fireline construction, each firefighter works on a small piece of fireline with his or her tool, perhaps slowly walking as the line progresses, until a completed portion of line is encountered. Then the call to “bump up!” is heard, and everyone ahead of the caller skips ahead one or more positions, leaving the unfinished fireline for those coming up behind. This is known as the bump up method or leapfrog method.

Burning index: relative measure of fire-control difficulty; doubling the index means twice the effort may be needed to control the fire (e.g., wind shift, heavier fuel load, etc).

Burn out: Setting fire inside a control line to consume fuel between the edge of the fire and the control line.

Burning period: The part of each 24-hour period when fires spread most rapidly; typically from 10:00 AM to sundown.

Bushfire: A bushfire is a wildfire that occurs in the forests, scrubs, woodlands or grasslands of Australia or New Zealand.

C

Candle: A standing tree with a broken top which often continues to burn after the main firefront has passed. Candles usually send up a fountain of sparks and burning embers which may travel some distance and be of concern if near the unburnt side of a control line.

Closed area: An area in which specified activities or entry are temporarily restricted to reduce risk of human-caused fires.

Closure: Legal restriction, but not necessarily elimination, of specified activities such as smoking, camping, or entry that might cause fires in a given area.

Cold trailing: A method of controlling a partly dead fire edge by carefully inspecting and feeling with the hand for heat to detect any fire, and lining any live edge. This method is the only way to fly in the Great Basin.

Complex: Two or more individual incidents located in the same gene
ral area which are assigned to a single incident commander or unified command.

Confine a fire: The least aggressive wildfire suppression strategy which can be expected to keep the fire within established boundaries of constructed firelines under prevailing conditions.

Contain a fire: A moderately aggressive wildfire suppression strategy which can be expected to keep the fire within established boundaries of constructed firelines under prevailing conditions.

Control line: An inclusive term for all constructed or natural barriers and treated (retardant) fire edges used to control a fire.

Controlled burn: See Prescribed Burn (Rx burn).

Coyote tactics: A progressive line construction duty involving primarily hotshot and jumpers which build fireline until the end of the operational and then bed down where ever they end up sleeping just as they started the shift, no sleeping bag. “Coyoteing” is not to be confused with “spiking” where sleeping bags a hot buckets are the prizes of the day. Coyoteing is a very useful tool although very uncomfortable. For the privilege of coyoteing personnel are compensated while they sleep (usually).

Creeping fire: Fire burning with a low flame and spreading slowly.

Crown fire: A fire that advances from top to top of trees or shrubs more or less independent of a surface fire. Crown fires are sometimes classed as running or dependent to distinguish the degree of independence from the surface fire.

Crown out: see “Torching”

D

Dead Man Zone: Unburnt areas around edges of brush fire.

Demob: Demobilization, or a crew being removed from working a fire.

Direct Attack: Any treatment applied directly to burning fuel such as wetting, smothering, or chemically quenching the fire or by physically separating the burning from unburned fuel.

Dozer line: Fireline constructed by the front blade of a bulldozer or any tracked vehicle with a front mounted blade used for exposing mineral soil. Also “catline.”

Drafting: using a suction pump to lift water from below the pump, using a semi-rigid suction hose, typically to fill a portable reservoir that has other suction pumps (to relay) or siphon hoses running downhill to their nozzles.

Drip torch: hand-carried fire-starting device filled with flammable liquid that is poured across a flaming wick, dropping flaming liquid onto the fuels to be burned.

Duff: Layer of decaying forest litter consisting of organics such as needles, leaves, plant and tree materials covering the mineral soil. Duff can smolder for days after a fire. Extinguishing smoldering duff is key to successful mopup operations.

E

Engine: Any ground vehicle providing specified levels of pumping, water, and hose capacity but with less than the specified level of personnel.

Engine crew: A number of personnel trained and supervised to respond to incidents using an engine. Typically much smaller than a hand crew.

Escape fire: An intentional fire ignited by a fire crew, usually in a grassland environment, to escape a dangerous situation.

Escaped fire: A fire, which has exceeded or is expected to exceed initial attack capabilities or prescription.

Extended attack: Situation in which a fire cannot be controlled by initial attack resources within a reasonable period of time. Committing additional resources within 24 hours after commencing suppression action will usually control the fire.

F

Fire behavior: The manner in which a fire reacts to the influences of fuel, weather, and topography.

Fire camp: Temporary camp established at large fires to provide food, rest, and other necessities to fire crews.

Fire cycle:

Fire danger:

Fire ecology:

Fire edge: The boundary of a fire at a given moment.

Fire fighting foam: The aerated solution created by forcing air into, or entraining air in water containing a foam concentrate by means of suitably designed equipment or by cascading it through the air at a high velocity. Foam reduces combustion by cooling, moistening and excluding oxygen.

Fire lookout tower: A structure located at a high vantage point to house and protect the person performing the duties of a Fire Lookout.

Fire Lookout: A person that keeps an eye for possible fire starts and conditions. They can work in a Fire Lookout Tower or perform the duty as a role for a fire crew on the fireline.

Fire rake: A rake with sharpened teeth instead of blades, for raking fire breaks.

Fire retardant: Any substance (except plain water) that by chemical or physical actions reduces flammability of fuels or slows their rate of combustion. See retardant slurry, AFFF, and Foam as examples.

Fire risk:

Fire shelter: An aluminized tent offering protection by means of reflecting radiant heat and providing a volume of breathable air in a fire entrapment situation. Carried as a safety tool, fire shelters should only be used in life-threatening situations, as a last resort, as severe burns or asphyxiation often result.

Fire shirt: Distinctive yellow shirts made of Nomex or other lightweight materials of low combustibility, used as uniform PPE of wildland firefighters, and more recently available in other colors (red, khaki, blue, etc).

Fire trail: Australian term for fireroad, road built specifically for access for “fire management purposes”.

Fire weather: weather conditions that affect fire vulnerability, fire behavior and suppression.

Fire whirl: a tornado-like vortex that forms from the stretching of vorticity due to the interaction of air flowing towards and upwards in a fire.

Fire-Return Interval:

Fireline handbook: A small red booklet carried by U.S. firefighters on the firelines, as a quick reference on various firefighting topics.

Fireline: The part of a control line that is scraped or dug to mineral soil. Also called fire trail. More generally, working a fire is called being “on the fireline.” May also refer to a “wet line” where water has been used to create a burn boundary in light fuels such as grass.

Firestorm: Extreme fire behavior indicated by widespread in-drafts and a tall column of smoke and flame, where added air increases fire intensity, creating runaway fire growth.

Firebreak: A natural or constructed barrier used to stop or check fires that may occur, or to provide a control line from which to work.

Flanks of a fire: The parts of a fire spread perimeter that grow to the sides then run roughly parallel to the main direction of spread. Separated flank heads are extremely dangerous in steep terrain.

Flare-up: Any sudden acceleration in rate of spread or intensification of the fire. Unlike blowup, a flare-up is of relatively short duration and does not radically change existing control plans.

Flash fuels: Fuels such as grass, leaves, draped pine needles, fern, tree moss and some kinds of slash, which ignite readily and are consumed rapidly when dry.

Fuel load: the mass of combustible materials available for a fire usually expressed as weigh
t of fuel per unit area (e.g., 20 tons per acre).

Fuel moisture: Percent water content of vegetation, an important factor in rate of spread, ranging from dead-fuel and fine-fuel moisture (FFM), of 10 percent or less, to live-fuel moisture (LFM), of 60 percent or more. FFM can be estimated by weighing calibrated wood sticks.

Fuel type: An identifiable association of fuel elements of distinctive species, form, size, arrangement, or other characteristics that will cause a predictable rate of spread or resistance to control under specified weather conditions.

Fuelbreak: A natural or manmade change in fuel characteristics which affects fire behavior so that fires burning into them can be more readily controlled.

G

Ground fire: Fire that consumes the organic material beneath the surface litter ground, such as peat fire.

H

Hand crew: A number of individuals that have been organized and trained and are supervised principally for operational assignments on an incident, typically using hand tools. In the United States, an ordinary hand crew is 20 in number, including supervisors.

Hazard Reduction: Precautionary controlled and managed fire lit during cooler and/or wetter weather in order to reduce the available fuel load. Sometimes incorrectly called a backburn.

Head of a fire: The most rapidly spreading portion of a fire perimeter, usually to the leeward or up slope; may have multiple heads if there are separated flanking fires.

Heavy fuels: Fuels of large diameter such as snags, logs, large limb wood, which ignite and are consumed more slowly than flash fuels.

Helispot: A natural or improved takeoff and landing area intended for temporary or occasional helicopter use, typically in remote areas without other access.

Helitack: A fire crew trained to use helicopters for initial attack, and to support large fires through bucket drops and the movement of personnel, equipment and supplies. Another primarily function of helitack is jumper support and retrieval.

Hot spot: A particularly active part of a fire.

Hotshot crew: Intensively trained fire crew used primarily in hand line construction, and organized primarily to travel long distances from fire to fire as needed rather than serving only one geographic location.

I

Incident Command System (ICS): System first developed to provide a command structure to manage large wildfires in the United States, now widely used by many emergency management agencies.

Indian pump: Water vessel carried on one’s back, either a rigid can or collapsible bag, with a hose and telescoping squirt pump. Contains 5 US gal, and is used on hot spots and during mop up. Also called bladder bag (if collapsible), piss pump, or Fedco. Of uncertain utility in active crown fires.

Indirect attack: A method of suppression in which the control line is located some considerable distance away from the fire active edge. Generally done in the case of a fast-spreading or high-intensity fire and to utilize natural or constructed firebreaks fuel breaks and favorable breaks in the topography. The intervening fuel is usually backfired; but occasionally the main fire is allowed to burn to the line, depending on conditions.

Infrared (IR) detector: A heat detection system used for fire detection, mapping, and hotspot identification.

Initial attack: The actions taken by the first resources to arrive at a wildfire to protect lives and property, and prevent further extension of the fire. Usually done by trained and experienced crews and takes place immediately after size-up.

Interface zone: Where urban firefighting meets wildland firefighting. Structures at the edges of wildlands are threatened and require skills and equipment of both disciplines.

Into the black: Moving from outside the fire front to inside the burned area, which is sometimes the safest place to be in a flare-up, i.e., behind the fire, if possible to traverse the flames.

K

Knock down: To reduce the flame or heat on the more vigorously burning parts of a fire edge, usually by cooling with dirt, water or other retardant.

L

Ladder fuels: Flammable vegetation that helps a ground fire move into the canopy.

LCES: Firefighter safety mnemonic for Lookouts, Communications, Escape routes, Safe zones.

Lead plane: Aircraft with pilot used to make trial runs over the target area to check wind, smoke conditions, topography and to lead air tankers to targets and supervise their drops.

Let-burn policy: Administrative decision to defer fire suppression, perhaps because of wilderness and long-term forest conservation considerations.

Light ’em, fight ’em: Derogatory term for wildland crew with a reputation for igniting its prescribed burns carelessly.

Line firing: Activity related to burn out along a fireline, using drip torches, fusees or other flammable materials.

Litter (forest litter): Surface buildup of leaves and twigs.

Logging slash or logging debris: Tops, stumps, mill ends, limbs left by logging operations. May be beneficial to soil stability, but can dry out and create heavy fuel load hazards.

Longline: Helicopter arrangement for lowering external loads (or removing loads) into areas not available for landing, using a long cable suspended from a hard point on the belly of the aircraft.

Lookouts: (1) Safety person positioned to monitor the location and behavior of a fire, ready to signal a crew to escape; (2) Fire lookout tower or fire tower, often on mountain-tops, for viewing the surrounding countryside and watching for signs of fire; (3) Fire lookout, the person who works in the fire lookout tower; (4) The “L” of “LCES” safety mnemonic, which see above.

M

McLeod: Hand tool used in fireline construction, consisting of a combination rake and hoe.

Mop-up: Extinguishing or removing burning material near control lines, felling snags, and trenching logs to prevent rolling after an area has burned, to make a fire safe, or to reduce residual smoke.

Mutual aid: cross-jurisdictional assistance with emergency services by pre-arranged agreement.

N

National Fire Protection Association (NFPA): Fire and safety standards organization; issues various wildfire-oriented standards related to clothing, tactics, equipment, etc.

National Hose (NH): National Standard Thread (NST) design of threaded couplings used on fire hose in various diameters; incompatible with many types of wildfire hose threads, thus requiring adapters.

National Interagency Fire Center (NIFC): Coordination facility in Boise, Idaho, operated by several U.S. agencies to provide logistics, weather information and resource coordination for wildfire suppression across the U.S. (formerly BIFC).

Nomex: Brand of approved, fire retardant, synthetic, aramid cloth and thread used in personal protective equipment for wildland firefighting, and jumpsuits.

National Wildfire Coordinating Group: Coordination agency located in Washington, D.C. which sets national standards for firefighter training and publishes training manuals.

O

One-hour fuel: Vegetation with large surface-to-mass ratio, a so-called “fine fuel” (along with 10-hour) that quickly reaches critical (inflammable) moisture levels (fine fuel moisture, FFM) when exposed to heat; compare with 100-hour or 1000-hour fuels (i.e., live fuel moisture, LFM), which take much more heat to ignite.

Overhead: Personnel assigned to supervisory positions, including Incident Commander, Command Staff, General Staff, Branch Directors, Supervisors, Unit Leaders, Managers, and staff. Also may be organized according to qualifications and experience, as “Type I Overhead Team”, and the like.

P

Palmer drought severity index (PDI): Technique for measuring impact of soil moisture changes on vegetation, for predicting fire danger and fire behavior.

Parallel attack: Fire containment method where crews construct a fireline at some distance from the edge of the fire (e.g., 100 yards) and then burn out the fuel in the buffer as the fireline is completed.

Perennial grasses: an extremely volatile fuel, after curing, in May, June, July, which can lead to large, fast fires that may reach larger fuels.

Point of origin: an element of fire behavior, indicating where a fire began, supporting further analysis of where the fire went or will go; evidence of specific origin is often obscured or destroyed by suppression tactics.

Prescribed burn: Deliberately ignited fire for the purpose of forest or prairie management, often to remove heavy fuel buildup or simulate natural cycles of fire in an ecosystem. Also called “controlled burn”, even if it becomes uncontrollable.

Progressive hose lay: A method of deploying hoses along firelines during suppression and as they are built and reinforced, typically using 1 1/2-inch supply lines, gated wyes and 1-inch lateral lines with nozzles (or at least spigot valves) every 100 feet or so. As the line progesses, more hoses and valves are added.

Project fire: Any large fire requiring extensive management and the establishment of a temporary infrastructure to support firefighting efforts, such as fire camps.

Pulaski: Combination axe and grub hoe tool with a straight handle, used for building handline. Also known as “P-tool”

R

Rapeller: Crew of specialist firefighters who are trained to access a fire area by sliding down ropes suspended from a hovering helicopter. Also used for delivering wilderness first aid if a rapeller is an EMT.

Reburn: (1) Repeat burning of an area over which a fire has previously passed, but left fuel that later ignites when burning conditions are more favorable; (2) An area that has re-burned.

Red card: Credentials issued to qualified wildland firefighters, listing their qualifications and specialties.

Red-flag day: Weather conditions creating a critical fire hazard, may require closing the forest to non-emergency activities in order to minimize the risk of accidental wildland fires.

S

S-130/S-190: The basic wildland fire training course given to all U.S. firefighters before they can work on the fire lines.

Safety zone: An area cleared of flammable material used for escape in the event the line is outflanked or in case a spot fire causes fuels outside the control line to render the line unsafe. In firing operations, crews progress so as to maintain a safety zone close at hand allowing the fuels inside the control line to be consumed before going ahead. Safety zones may also be constructed as integral parts of fuel breaks; they are greatly enlarged areas which can be used with relative safety by firefighters and their equipment in the event of blowup in the vicinity.

Sawyer: Chainsaw crew, may also include aller or eller who is qualified to cut down trees or snags, perhaps while the tree or snag is burning.

Secondary line: Any fireline constructed at a distance from the fire perimeter concurrently with or after a line already constructed on or near to the perimeter of the fire. Generally constructed as an insurance measure in case the fire escapes control by the primary line.

SEAT: Single Engine Airtanker – small agricultural aircraft converted for use on fires, predominantly during the initial attack phase.

Size-up: Initial assessment of fire including (among other things) fuel load, fire weather, topography, fire behavior, hazards and exposures of valuable properties. Quickly detects need for additional resources and sets operational priorities.

Skidder unit: Pre-configured tank, pump, hose for attachment to a logging skidder (large 4-wheel-drive tractor with a dozer blade, winch or grapple) to be carried to a fireline.

Slash: Debris resulting from such natural events as wind, fire, or snow breakage; or such human activities as road construction, logging, pruning, thinning, or brush cutting. It includes logs, chunks, bark, branches, stumps, and broken under-story trees or brush. See also logging slash.

Sling load: Cargo net containing supplies or equipment delivered by longline below a helicopter.

Slopover: Fire spreading outside the boundaries of a control line.

Slug: Humorous pejorative term for those believed to be doing less work than you. “Heli-slug” for helislack, “camp slug” for fire camp support personnel, “engine slug” for engine crew member, etc. If you’re not a Hotshot or smokejumper you’re most likely a slug.

Slurry bomber: See Airtanker.

Smokechaser: Colloquial term for a wildland firefighter. Now mostly archaic, except in Minnesota where state Department of Natural Resources firefighters are officially known by that name.

Smokejumper: A specifically trained and certified firefighter who travels to remote wildfires by fixed-wing aircraft and parachutes into a jump spot – that may include trees – close to the fire.

Smoldering: A fire burning without flame and barely spreading.

Snag: A dead standing tree that can be hazardous.

Spike camp: Remote camp usually near a fireline, and lacking the logistical support that a larger fire camp would have.

Spotting: Behavior of a fire producing sparks or embers that are carried by the wind and which start new fires (spot fires) beyond the zone of direct ignition by the main fire. A cascade of spot fires can cause a blowup.

Strike team: Specified combinations of the same kind and type of resources, with communications, and a leader.

Suppression: All the work of extinguishing or confining a fire beginning with its discovery.

Suppression crew (also “Soup Crew”): Two or more firefighters stationed at a strategic location for initial action on fires. Duties are essentially the same as those of individual firefighters; often organized into 20-person crews, including supervisors, for simplified logistics and operations.

Surface fire: Fire that burns loose debris on the surface, which include dead branches, blowdown timber, leaves, and low vegetation, as contrasted with crown fire.

T

Task force: Any combination or single resources assembled for a particular tactical need, with common communications and a leader. A Task Force may be pre-established and sent to an incident, or formed at an incident.

Tree jump: A Smokejumper can som
etimes parachute into the tree canopy if a clearing is not available or suitable.

Torching: Not to be confused with crowning, is when a single or small group of trees “torch” or go up in flames. Torching and group torching are more of a nuisance whereas crown fire has a high pucker factor.

Turn Around: A widened part of a fire break used for turning vehicles around, also used as a safe area during entrapment.

Type I Engine: A fire engine designed primarily for fighting fires in structures accessible from roads.

Type II Engine: A fire engine designed to carry and pump water for use in fire suppression. Also known as a “Tender” or “Water Tender”.

Type III Engine: A fire engine designed primarily for fighting wildland fires. These engines are usually able to traverse more rugged terrain than Type I and Type II engines.

U

Understory burn: A controlled burn of fuels below the forest canopy, intended to remove fuels from on-coming or potential fires.

Urban interface: The Interface zone where man-made structures inter-mingle with wildlands, creating risk of structural involvement in a wildland fire incident and wildland fire involvement in structure fires, each of which requires different equipment, training and tactics.

W

Watch out situations: A list of 18 situations for firefighters to be aware of, which signal potential hazards on the fire line; originated from analysis of generations of similar incidents.

Water tender: Any ground vehicle capable of transporting specified quantities of water.

Wet line: Temporary control line using water or other fire retardant liquid to prevent a low-intensity fire from spreading in surface fuels or to knock down a more intense fire.

Widowmaker: Any branch or treetop that is poorly or no longer attached to a tree, but still tangled overhead; does not discriminate among potential victims by gender or marital status.

Wildfire: An unplanned, unwanted wildland fire, including unauthorized human-caused fires, escaped wildland fire use events, escaped prescribed fire projects, and all other wildland fires where the objective is to put the fire out.

Wildland: An area in which development is essentially nonexistent, except for roads, railroads, power lines, and similar transportation facilities. Structures, if any, are widely scattered.

Wildland Fire Use fires (WFU fires) are naturally-ignited wildland controlled burns that are managed for purposes of achieving specific previously-defined resource management objectives.

Windfall: Tree knocked over or broken off by wind, increasing fuel loading and hampers building fireline. Also sometimes called blowdown.

See also

List of basic firefighting topics

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Fire fighting

Personnel

Firefighter  Fire chief  Fire marshal  Fire Master  Firefighter Assist and Search Team  Fire Police  Handcrews  Helitack  Hotshots  Smokejumper  Station officer  Volunteer fire department

Facilities

Fire camp  Fire lookout tower  Fire Service College  Fire station

Equipment

Glossary of firefighting equipment  Bunker gear  Escape chair  Fire apparatus  Fire chief’s vehicle  Fire extinguisher  Fire hose  Fire hydrant  Fire retardant  Fire station  Fireman’s switch  Flame retardant  Hard suction hose  Heat detector  List of fire-retardant materials  Nomex  PASS  Rescue pumper  SCBA  Siren  Smoke detector  Splash suit  Super Scooper  Thermal imaging camera

Terminology

Glossary of firefighting terms  Glossary of wildland fire terms  Aerial firefighting  Dead Man Zone  Draft  Fire classes  Fire control  Fire safety  Fire triangle  Fireman’s carry  Firewall  Flash fire  Forcible entry  Gaseous fire suppression  Master stream  Stop, drop and roll  Structure fire  Two-in, two-out  Ventilation  Wetdown  Wildfire  Wildfire suppression

Miscellaneous

Fire engine red  Firefighting worldwide  History of firefighting  Incident Command System  International Association of Fire Fighters  International Firefighters’ Day  List of historic fires  List of firefighting films  London Fire Brigade Museum  National Fire Incident Reporting System  National Fire Protection Association  Saint Florian  World Police and Fire Games

References

^ Glossary of Firefighting Terms from a Air National Guard website

^ Fire Use from a U.S. Forest Service website

Categories: Wildland fire suppression | Glossaries

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