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Hardware Knowledge Together: An Overview Of Mold High Speed Machining Technology

In modern Mold Production, with the degree of the plastic parts of the beautiful and functional requirements higher and higher and plastic parts are designed to be more complex internal structure, the mold shape design are becoming increasingly complex and ever-increasing proportion of free-form surface, the corresponding mold structure is also designed to be more complex. All of the mold process put a higher demand, not only to ensure the manufacture of high precision and surface quality, but also to the pursuit of processing of the surface appearance. With high-speed machining technology continued to deepen, especially in the processing Machine tool , CNC systems, tool systems, CAD / CAM software and related technology continues to develop, driven by high-speed machining technology has been increasingly applied to the mold cavity of the processing and manufacturing.

CNC high speed machining in mold making, as one of the most important advanced manufacturing technology, is a highly efficient, high quality, low power in an advanced manufacturing technology. Compared with the traditional cutting, the cutting speed, feed rate has been greatly improved, and the cutting mechanism is not the same. High-speed cutting to cutting essential leap took place, the unit power of the metal removal rate increased by 30% to 40%, 30% lower cutting forces, cutting tool life increased by 70%, to remain in large parts of the cutting heat lower rate, low cutting vibration almost disappeared. With the increase in cutting speed, rough material removal rate per unit time increases, the cutting time is reduced, and processing efficiency, and thereby reduced the manufacturing cycle and improve the market competitiveness of products. At the same time, high-speed processing of small fast-forward to reduce cutting force, chip, high-speed discharge to reduce the workpiece deformation of the cutting force and thermal stress, improve poor rigidity and the possibility of cutting thin-walled parts. As the cutting force reduction, increase speed to make the system work cutting away from the machine’s low frequency natural frequency, while the workpiece surface roughness on the most sensitive to low frequencies, thereby reducing the surface roughness. In the high-hardened steel mold (HRC45 ~ HRC65) machining process can be replaced by high-speed cutting and grinding EDM polishing processes, thus avoiding time-consuming electrode manufacturing and processing power, significantly reduce the fitter’s amount of grinding and polishing. For some markets a growing need for thin-walled mold parts, high-speed milling can be successfully completed, and in high-speed CNC machining center, milling, die in a single setup to complete multi-step process.

High speed machining of mold processing technology had a tremendous impact, changing the traditional mold used “annealing heat treatment milling grinding” or ” EDM grinding, polishing,” and other complex and lengthy process even be used alternative to the original high-speed machining of all processes. High-speed machining techniques can be applied to the direct processing of hardened mold cavity (especially semi-finishing and finishing), the electrode in EDM machining, manufacturing, rapid sample also widely used. Mass production practice shows that the application of high-speed die cutting technology can save about 80% of follow-up processing of manual grinding time, saving processing costs nearly 30% of the cost of the mold surface machining accuracy up to 1m, tool cutting efficiency can be increased by 1.

I am an expert from Cheap On Sales, usually analyzes all kind of industries situation, such as multi system vcr , portable dvd mintek.

Frontier Series Offset Disks

Frontier Series Offset Disks
John Deere has added three new lines of offset disks to its Frontier family of tillage products: the DH51 Series, the DH52 Series, and the DH53 Series.

Read more on Midwest Messenger

What to Look for in an Air Duct Cleaning Company

Air duct cleaning is a relatively new industry that has exploded as a $4 Billion a year industry in the United States alone, in the 21st century. Some people have embraced air duct cleaning as a beneficial service, while others have criticized the service and view the service as a waste of time and money. More than likely though, people who have their varying view points for and against the service are both correct on this issue in one way or another and in this article I will address why I think that both sides raise interesting and very good points that you as a consumer should consider. In this article I will address different air duct cleaning methods and explain what those methods are, I will explain credentials so that you can better understand who the organizations are and who they represent and last I will address the common scams that are out there so that you as a consumer can avoid being caught up into such scams to increase the possibilities of receiving a good service performed correctly, should you ever schedule an air duct cleaning service in the future with a local service provider.

The two most common air duct cleaning methods are the “contact cleaning” method and the “Power vacuum air wash” method in air duct cleaning. The contact cleaning method in air duct cleaning involves the use of shop vac style equipment to keep constant contact between the vacuum hose and duct work surface during the cleaning process. Generally speaking the companies that employ this form of cleaning charges less money for their services, because they know that they are limited in what dirt, dust and debris that they can actually pull out of the air ducts and are typically in your home to perform the service for 30 minutes to 1 hour. There is usually no benefit to an air duct cleaning service when this method of cleaning is performed, however it may be beneficial if the actual vent boots were full of construction debris or dog food or whatever and you did not feel like cleaning the vent boots and preferred to just get a cheap service provider out to do that work for you instead. Now, the power vacuum air wash method in air duct cleaning involves the use of expensive powerful equipment to allow a technician to deep clean the entire HVAC system. The vacuum hose is usually 8-12″ in diameter and is installed in the main trunk line to put the entire air duct system under a deep and powerful vacuum.

No kidding, every vent in the house will have a powerful vacuum pulling hard off of every vent in the house for a perfect negative air containment, which disallows any cross contamination of dirt discharges in your home to occur during the cleaning process! The vacuum machines could be 220 volt HEPA rated negative air machines, gas powered or diesel powered machines to generate a powerful enough vacuum to perform the service properly. Compressed air tools are used to air wash all of the dirt, dust and debris to the power vacuum hose installed in the main duct, trunk line. When the power vacuum air wash form of air duct cleaning is performed correctly the service usually takes anywhere from 2-4 hours to perform the service in an average sized home. Reputable companies will clean all supply boots, adjoining supply branch lines, supply trunk line(s), supply plenum, return boots, return channels, return trunk line(s) and return plenum, virtually 100% of the entire HVAC system.

It is vital that the entire air duct system is cleaned, because if any debris and or contamination is left in the system, then that missed debris and or contamination will just recirculate again to recontaminate the air duct system as if nothing was even done, once the furnace is turned on again after the air duct cleaning is complete. A typical forced air ventilation is a circulatory system of constant air in and air out when a furnace is in operation. Companies that are licensed for HVAC will also thoroughly clean the furnace and evaporator coil (indoor coil that is often above the furnace).

The benefits can be tremendous with this method of cleaning, such as increased air flow, increased HVAC system efficiency, reduced dust in the home, reduction in unpleasant odors deriving from the air ducts and increased life expectancy of working HVAC parts such as surface igniters, blower motors, limit switches and capacitors that dirt, dust and debris destroys over time. A reputable company that pays their technicians well, maintains their tools & machinery and possesses all of the proper credentials such as ACCA membership status, EPA certified technicians to handle refrigeration and carries proper insurance(s) will charge anywhere from $425.00-$1000.00 per HVAC system for about half a days work to properly clean each HVAC system.

The price swing is also factored by different cost of living standards depending on where you live in the country and varying overhead costs that each company carries. Some one in Manhattan New York would probably be near the $1000.00 price per HVAC system cleaned, whereas someone in Austin Texas would be near the $425.00 per HVAC system cleaned. The cost of living is much higher in Manhattan New York than in Austin Texas, so logically air duct cleaning in Manhattan New York would cost more than in Austin Texas.

Credentials are very important! Beware of companies that have no credentials at all, because an in experienced service provider can cause a lot of expensive damage to your HVAC system, if they don’t know what they are doing and you surely don’t want to be stuck with an expensive repair bill as a result. The best credentials that a service provider can have is the ACCA membership status.

The Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA) HVAC system cleaning standards is the only air duct cleaning standard accredited by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). ANSI is a reputable international organization that creates rigid tough standards to improve products and services for the better good of the consumer to ensure that the product or service is safe and effective. If an organization lacks ANSI accreditation, then they lack validity to their product or service(s) in the HVAC, Heating, ventilation and air conditioning field.

A prime example of that would be NADCA, which stands for the National Air Duct Cleaning Association. NADCA has raised some good guidelines to follow in an air duct cleaning procedure, however they lack knowledge in having much HVAC technical knowledge to deliver the best procedures in cleaning your furnace or evaporator coil, which is at the heart of the entire air duct system. Very often NADCA member companies are not licensed for HVAC, which increases your risk when hiring them to clean and HVAC system. These vital working components needs to be cleaned as well, which means in my opinion NADCA will leave you in the dust pertaining to HVAC system cleaning. The safe approach to take is to shop around with ACCA member companies to ensure that your HVAC system is cleaned correctly by a licensed HVAC contractor or company rather than hiring an under trained carpet cleaner or air duct cleaner.

Air duct cleaning is a good service to have performed if it is done properly by an ACCA member company, however many companies have exploited the good service that many homeowners and building owners desire by delivering bait and switch tactics or blow and go air duct cleaning procedures that leaves the system contaminated after the service has been performed. 9 times out of 10 you should discredit ads that state air duct cleanings start at $59.00-$199.00 for up to 10 vent lines cleaned. Only two results will derive from these forms of advertising such as Company “A” arrived for $79.00 and in fact cleaned 10 vent lines with a shop vac type machine and left within 1 hour leaving your system contaminated or Company “B” arrived to clean 10 vent lines for $69.00 and their technician explained that the returns are very dirty too and they can be cleaned for $25.00 each.

Now your ticket has turned to $144
.00 with 3 return lines cleaned. While the technician is still cleaning he realizes that your trunk lines are dirty too and up sells you on that to clean a supply trunk line for $100.00 and to clean a return trunk line for another $100.00, which now turns the ticket into $344.00. You’re done with receiving the up selling, right? No, think again, because the technician explained to you that he had to cut out accesses into the ductwork to clean it right, he of coarse now has to sell you clean out doors to install so that all of your air doesn’t escape out of the system, so he quotes you at $75.00 for each clean out door installed to make the ticket $494.00 from an additional $150.00 for two doors sold.

If the job was performed correctly that would be fine, however the guy is in your house with a shop vac type machine, which means he received $494.00 from you to leave your HVAC system contaminated. After he leaves once the air duct cleaning service has been performed, you realize that dust is blowing out of all of the vents when the furnace cycles, because he disturbed a lot of dust during the air duct cleaning, because shop vac style machinery are in effective in performing a thorough air duct cleaning service. You could have called a reputable company that is an ACCA member company utilizing the most powerful equipment in the industry to give you an “up front” price quote right in the same ball park for price as the bait and switch company eventually got out of you, to get the job done thoroughly and correctly. If it is too good to be true, that is because it is. Buyer beware, these bait and switch tactics have been going on for years and usually the companies that follow these price structures are the very companies leaving the majority of dirt, dust and debris in your ventilation system that they were paid good money by the customer to clean out.

When shopping around for a service provider that offers air duct cleaning as a service, make sure that they are an ACCA member company, which tells you that they are licensed for HVAC and check their record at the BBB. If they have a few complaints that is fine, so long as all of the complaints have been resolved. You know there is a huge difference with 5 complaints all quickly resolved and 112 complaints unresolved. These contractors and companies deal with the general public, which means they deal with all different walks of life of different personalities and characters on a daily basis. It is almost impossible if a company has done enough volume of work to keep a perfect record with the BBB. Usually the companies that are small and have not done too many jobs are the only companies that have the perfect score with the BBB. No less, the BBB is still a good reference though, to safe guard yourself from blatant scamming companies and it would be wise to reference companies there if you are unsure of the companies over all reputation.

The conclusion of this article is if a company is licensed for HVAC, uses the most powerful air duct cleaning machinery in the industry, performs air duct cleanings by the power vacuum air wash method and has a good reputation with the BBB and other reporting institutions, then air duct cleaning will more than likely be performed thoroughly and properly in most instances, so that you can realize positive results such as increased air flow coming out of vents, odor reductions deriving from the vents, increased HVAC system efficiency and increased furnace and air conditioning part life.

Author: Mike Meincke Managing Member of Lucky Duct, LLC. Lucky Duct, LLC is a full service licensed heating and air conditioning company that operates in Denver Colorado. Visit to find more great information and facts on air duct cleaning. Enter the “Air Duct” page to find air duct cleaning related content.

Mike Meincke is the Managing Member of Lucky Duct, LLC which operates a full service heating, ventilation, AC and air duct cleaning company in the Denver metro. Lucky Duct, LLC was founded in 2005 and has quickly attracted some of the most seasoned tenured HVAC technicians to work for Lucky Duct, LLC due to a positive working climate, good hourly pay and full fledge employee benefits that has allowed Lucky Duct, LLC to rapidly grow in the saturated Denver Metro HVAC market. Visit to learn more about why Lucky Duct, LLC has raised the bar in customer service, up to date technician training and quality of service, products and workmanship!

Defensive Mechanism of S.s

Defensive Mechanism of S.S


I. Introduction

The primary functions of a circuit breaker are interrupting short circuit current, carrying normal currents, switching ON and OFF normal loads, and providing necessary insulating between live parts and earthed parts. The maintenance problems involved with bulk oil circuit breakers were immense. Minimum Oil technology had replaced bulk oil technology during 1950’s. Similarly the air -blast technology was developed for obtaining higher performance characteristics. However, the air -blast breakers are quite expensive, and their operation and maintenance cumbersome. Hence and need was felt during 1960’s for reduced maintenance.

SF6 was first obtained from Fluorine and Sulphur in 1900 by M/s. H.MOSSAN and PLEBEAU. Behavior of SF6 in Electrical field was studied by M/s. H.G. PQLLOCK and  P.S. COOPER in 4936 known for over two decades, perfection on commercial exploitation was attained during 1960’s. This development made it possible for SF6 gas at low pressure to be used in BIN circuit breakers for insulating and are’ quenching purposes, Some of the outstanding properties of SF 6 gas which make its use ideal in EHV circuit. breakers are:

            1. Inertness

            2. Non-toxicity

            3. Electro negative nature

            4. High dielectric strength

            5. Unique are quenching property

            6. Chemical and thermal stability

            7. Good Thermal conductivity

            8. Non corrosiveness

            9. Non-Flammability

            The combined electrical, physical, chemical and thermal properties of SF6 offer the following outstanding features when used  in power circuit breaker.

            1. Safety

            2. Size reduction

            3. Weight reduction

            4. Simplified design

            5. High degree of reliability

            6. Switching of  capacitive currents without restrike

            7. Very tow noise level

            8. Easy for handling

            9. Easy for installation

            10. Maintenance free service

2. Properties of Sulphur Hexafluoride (SF6 )

a) Physical properties:

                        SF6 is a colorless, odorless and non-flammable gas. The fluorine atoms are placed at the corners of a regular octa-hedran with the sulphur atom centrally placed at a distance of 1.58 angstrom units. The bonds are predominantly covalent and the dissociation equation is

                                    SF6  –à  SF5 + F __________

            The decomposition potential is 15.7 ev.  SF6 gas is a very heavy gas and its density is approximately 5.5 times that of air. It is highly stable. It is more compressible than air and follows the law of perfect gases.

b)Electrical properties:

                        The di-electric strength of SF6 gas is 3 times that of air at atmospheric pressure and is only marginally reduced by the presence of air as impurity. The dielectric strength increases with increasing pressure. At a pressure of three bars, the dielectric strength becomes equal to that transformer oil. The size and electro negative nature molecule explain this strength. The molecule provides a large electron collision diameter. This results in capture of electrons preventing them from attaining sufficient energy to create additional .current carrying particles. SF6moiecuie also has the ability to store energy in the vibrational and electronic’ levels of the molecule there by forming stable ions of low mobility.

            The dielectric strength of SF6 remains unaltered over a wide range of frequencies. since SF6 has no dipole moment, the dielectric constant does not vary with frequency. AT 27.30c and atmospheric pressure the dielectric constant is 1.00191 and loss angle is 2 x 10-7.

            The dielectric properties of SF6 remain unchanged even at low temperatures. Unlike solid insulation materials an electrical breakdown in SF 6 gas does not result in permanent deterioration of its properties. Break down in all filled equipment may result in enormous increased of pressure due to gas formation but such hazards do not exist in the case of SF6 filled equipment.

c)Arc quenching properties:

            The ability to quench arc is unique to SF 6. This results in the high dielectric strength of the gas and the very rapid recovery of dielectric strength after arcing occurs. SF6 is approximately 100 times more effective in this respect than air under similar conditions. The low arc-time constant and its capacity to absorb free electrons due to electro negative nature makes it an excellent medium for arc interruption. The complex molecular motion of SF6 enables it to absorb electric energy and form stable negative ions. Its tendency to form negative ion around current zero results in the fast disappearance of electrons liberated during arcing. Unlike oil, arcing in SF6 will produce no carbon deposits or carbon tracking.

            The electro-negative property of SF6 may be due to several factors, including its large collision diameter. If stray electron electric field can be absorbed before they attain sufficient energy to create additional current carrying particles though collision, the breakdown can be slowed or even stopped. The large collision diameter of SF6 molecule assists in capturing these electrons. energy can be stored in the vibration levels of the SF6 atom, forming stable negative ions of low mobility. Thus the gas is electronegative in nature and shows .great electron binding capacity. Hence SF6 gas displays splendid arc-extinguishing performance .

            The arc time constant is directly proportional to the radius of arc makes it possible to have large number of breakings at full capacity of the breaker. The characteristic curve of the arc is such that the extinction power b low. In a typical case where the extinction power was of the order of 20 KW for an SF6 breaker, the corresponding value of an air blast breaker was in hundreds of KW.

            Some ion formation process with SF6 are :

            Resonance capture                  :           SF6 + e  -à  (SF6) – SF5- + F

            Positive ion formation             :           SF6 + e  -à (SF6+) + 2e -SF5- + F + 2e-

            Excitation & dissociation                    :           SF6 + e  -à (SF6-) + e -SF5- + F + e

            Positive & negative ion formation:     SF + e -à  (SF6-) + e -SF5 + F -+ e

d) Heat Transfer characteristics:

            SF6 has excellent heat transfer characteristic, an important criterion for gaseous dielectric in power applications. The higher molecular weight together with low  gaseous viscosity of SF6 enables it to transfer heat by convention more effectively than the common gases. The co-efficient of heat transfer of SF6 is ap
proximately 2.5 tip1es that of air under the same conditions. Hence when the breaker is energized, the temperature rise small.

e)Wide  temperature range :

            SF6 in the gaseous state follows the ideal gas laws fairly closely. Consequently the pressure change is only moderate for a considerable change in temperature. The low sublimation points of SF6 assures greater dielectric strength even at low temperature the liquification temperature is —270C at a pressure of 12 Kg / sq. cm. Hence no heater is      necessary.

 f)Toxity :

            SF6 is a non-toxic gas and produces no poisonous effect on human body. But the decomposition products produced by the discharge (SF4, SF2, S2, F2 etc.) are harmful. These products are minimized by controlling of moisture in the interrupter and by absorbing the decomposition products by synthetic zeolite.

g)Chemical and Thermal Stability:

            SF6 gas is inert and it is one of the least reactive substance known under normal operating conditions. It may be heated in quartz to 5000C without under going any decomposition. SF6 does not react with water, acids and alkalis. Tests conducted have shown          practically no corrosion for various metals exposed to SF6 

h) Various constants :

            Some of the outstanding properties of SF6 which makes it ideal for high voltage power applications are:

            Molecular weight                                                        ..          146.05

            Sublimation point at 1 atm                                          ..          63.9°C

            Density of gas at 21.19 C at 1 atm                             ..          6.139

            Viscosity liquid at 13.52°C                                         ..          0.305

            Gas at 31.16°C                                                                       ..           0.0157

            Critical temperature etc.                                              ..          318.80

            Critical pressure bars                                                    ..         37.772

            Critical volume cu.metre / g                                        ..          1.356

            Dielectric strength reI N2 = al at 50 Hs -1.2 Mhs      ..          2.3 -2.5

            Dielectric constant at 25°C 1atm                                ..          1.002049 ‘

            Thermal conductivity at 30°C, Cal / Sec. -on °C                   ..           3.36 x 10-5

3. Breakdown phenomenon in SF6 :

            Breakdown in gases takes place when the free electrons gain sufficient kinetic energy Under the influence of an electric field and collide with neutral gas molecules liberating electrons from their outer shells. A chain reaction like this results in an electron avalanche. In the case of electro-negative gases like SF6 this mechanism is slightly modified. The free electrons get attached to molecules forming negative ions. SF6 + e Z SF6 -e. This negative ions are too massive to produce collisional ionization. This attachment represents an effective way of removing electrons which would have otherwise contributed to an electron        avalanche. This particular behaviors gives rise to very high dielectric strength for electronegative gases.

            The breakdown voltage of an electro-negative gas in a uniform field is a simple function of the product of pressure and spacing. the breakdown characteristics in non-uniform fields will be different because ionization may be main aimed locally due to the presence of regions of high stress. This is the corona effect. This may be due to surface roughness, sharp comers, floating conducting or semi-conducting particles. In SF6 equipments special care is taken to ensure that such sharp points do not exist in the breaker so that a fairly uniform field distribution can be achieved.

4. Principles of interruption with SF6 :

            Techniques employed for interruption with SF6 can be classified into two :

            a)         Double pressure system.

            b)         Single pressure system.

The latter can be further classified as double flow fixed nozzle and single flow series piston breakers.

a)Double pressure system:

            The functions of insulation and interruption are performed in separate chambers. SF6 at a pressure of 14 Kg/sq. cm. is stored in a high pressure chamber. This is used for quenching the are SF6 at low pressure (2.5 to 3.5 Kg/sq. cm.) provides the insulation. When the contacts separate under fault, gas at high pressure is forced into the arcing region and then it follows in to the low pressure region. The gas thus exhausted in to the low pressure region is compressed again and returned to the high pressure reservoir. The arcing takes place between the arcing tip and arcing ring thus relieving the contact area from the stresses of arc. A filter with actual alumna is kept at the intake of the compressor so that all the decomposition products of gas can be absorbed before re-circulating in to the system. A thermostatically controlled heating system will be provided in the high pressure reservoir to prevent condensation of gas at low temperature.

b) Single pressure system :

            In this case SF6 at low pressure (3 to 6.5 Kg/ provides the insulation and the energy for interruption. The breaker chamber consists of the fixed and moving contacts, and the piston arrangement in the puffer type fixed contact. As the moving contact separates under fault, the piston moves forward with high speed. This compresses the SF 6 inside the hallow fixed contact and forces the gas into the arc resulting in quenching. The force with which the gas could be blast depends on the design of the piston arrangement and the energy of the control mechanism.

            A further improvement is the Magnetic puffer type breakers where the operating force on the moving contact rod is increased, by magnetic repulsive force. The short circuit current is passed through a set of coils fixed on the support of the moving contact fed. A secondary short circuit ring is positioned and magnetically coupled with primary winding. This ring acts as piston as well. This interaction between the. two fields produces a repulsive force and it pushes the moving contact rod forward. The addition of this simple magnetic drive mechanism improves the interrupting capabilities of the breaker.

            The single pressure system has an inherent advantage of simplicity in construction. It needs no additional compressor as required in double pressure system. The manufacturing cost of puffer type equipment is lower.

5. Construction:

            The arc extinguishing system employs a synchronized double flow single pressure puffer type d
esign. This leads to a simple construction.

            The SF 6 circuit breaker mainly comprises of the following:

            1.         Breaker poles it.

            2.         Base tube and mechanism box

            3.         Control unit

4.                  Air compressor electro-hydraulic operating mechanism


1.Movable Cylinder(Puffer cylinder)    2.Moving Contact 

3.Fixed Contct 4.Insulating Nozzle

5.Fixed Piston  6.Gas Trapped in before compression 

7.Compressed gas between 1 & 5

8.The arc-being extinguished by puffer action

5.1.Breaker Pole:

            The primary functions of a circuit breaker are carried out of breaker pole. The breaker pole consists of interrupter unit and support insulator.

            The interrupter unit consists of fixed contact tube, guide tube, moving contact tube, puffer or blast cylinder and piston. The fixed contact tube is connected to the top terminal via. Contact support.

The guide tube is fastened to the lower terminal. The other ends of the fixed contact tube and guide tube which are subjected to arcing during the arc interruption are provided with arc quenching nozzles. the nozzles are made up of graphite materials which keeps the contact wear to minimum. The moving contact tube consists of spring loaded finger contacts arranged in the form of a ring. The front end of the moving contact tube is provided with an arc resistance insulating ring and arcing ring of high arc resistant materials

            The blast cylinder which is made up of high arc resistant insulating material and the moving contact tube are rigidly coupled to each other and connected to the operating rod in the supporting insulator.  The blast piston which is made up of aluminum is fastened to the lower terminal pad. The fixed contact tube, guide tube, moving contact tube, blast cylinder and blast piston are “all housed inside a porcelain ,insulator. When the circuit breaker is in close position current flows from top terminal to bottom terminal through contact support, fixed contact tube, moving contact tube and guide tube.

            The support insulator apart from supporting the interrupter unit provide insulation between live parts and earthed parts. It houses the operating rod (insulated), one end of which is connected to the interrupter unit and the other end is connected to the mechanism.

5.2. Base Tube mechanism box:

            The base tube which supports the breaker pole and the mechanism box acts as a local air reservoirs. The mechanism box enclosed electromagnetic valve, closing coil, trip coil and operating cylinder. Lower mechanism case encloses the complete lever system to transmit the operation force from the mechanism box to the breaker pole.

 5.3.Control Unit :

            This accommodates the gas pressure switches, gas density detector, gas pressure gauge, air pressure gauge, air valve heater, auxiliary relays, terminal blocks, etc. for electrical and pneumatic control and monitoring of the breaker. The control devices of the air and SF6 gas systems are common for 3 poles of the breaker.

5.4.      Compress

            Since the operating energy requirement is greater the MOCBS either air compressor or electro-hydraulic operating mechanism is used.

6. The principle of Arc extinction:

            When the circuit breaker is in closed position the moving contact assembly bridges the fixed contact tube and the guide tube. When an opening operation is initiated, the blast cylinder moves towards  the stationary blast piston so that the SF6 gas in the blast cylinder is compressed to a pressure required to quench the arc. The gas compressed during the above process is released only when the contacts are separated with moving contact assembly acting as a slide valve. At the instant of contact separation, arc strikes between the front end of the arc quenching nozzle of the fixed contact tube and the arcing ring of the moving contact tube. The compressed gas in the blast cylinder is released in the break radically as the contacts are separated. As the moving contact assembly moves further, the arc between the front end of the fixed contact nozzle and the arcing ring of the moving contact is transferred from the arcing ring of the moving contacts of nozzle of the guide tube , by gas jet and its own electrodynamics forces. the arc is further elongated by the gas flow axially into the nozzles and safety extinguished. While the arc is being interrupted, the blast cylinder which is made up of arc resistant insulating material enclosed the arc quenching assembly, there by protecting the porcelain insulator from arcing effects. After arc extinction, the moving contact assembly and blast is free of any parts of the chamber which may have a bridging effect or influence the electric field distributor.

7. Operation principles:

7.1. Opening operation:

            When the trip coil is energized, the space of pilot valve is filled with compressed air and the charging valve moves to right. The space in the operating cylinder is filled with compressed air from the air received and the operating piston is rapidly driven to the left. the operating rod connected to the operating piston is pulled in the opening direction to drive the puffer cylinder at the high speed through the insulated operating rod in the supporting insulator. the SF6 gas in the puffer cylinder is compressed and the SF6 gas blast extinguishes the arc generated between the moving and stationary contacts.

            Simultaneous with the opening operation, the cam rotates and causes the electromagnet valve to return to its original position. As a result, compressed air in the space of pilot valve is exhausted into atmosphere and the charging valve is reset to the original piston. As the open state is retained by the link mechanism attached to the end of the operating piston.

7.2. Closing operation:

            When the closing coil is energized, the arc nature is made to rotate causing the hook to be disengaged. Thus the sector line rotates to release the roller and the operating piston is driven in the closing direction by the force of the closing spring, upon completion of closing, the link mechanism is held in a state to be ready for the subsequent opening operation.

8. Caution :

            When operating the breaker observes the following:

I)Keep correct SF6 gas pressure and operating air pressure as specified.

2)Operate the stop valves properly.

3)Do not allow ingress of moisture and dust into the SF6 gas supplying point.

4)Do not pump the gas piping and air piping with any object.

5)Do not damage the gasket and seal face on the leakage tight joint in the gas and air system.

6)When opening the circuit breaker by the manual handle. ‘

                        a) confirm that the main circuit is not energized.

                        b) Be sure to turn off the control power supply.

                        c) Confirm that compressed air in receivers is released.

                        d) Confirm that manual operating rod an
d handle are removed before                                             changing the receiver with compressed air.

7)Do not operate any part other than the manual operating handle before filling SF6 gas at the rated pressure. Do not fill compressed air before filling SF6 gas.

8)When checking interior parts of interrupter, blow air into the system for   sufficiently long time and confirm that sufficient supply of air is available before starting any work.

9.Gas Leak Detection:

            If the gas leaks through any point, this can result in reduction of pressure and consequent loss of insulation properties Gas Leak detection is done with the help of a halogen torch type detector. The detector works on the principle that SF6 absorbs a certain number of electron when passed through an atmosphere where free electrons flow. The free electrons are generated with in the sector by a small radio active source in the presence of a carrier gas. these electrons are collected at the detector anode and give a small base line current which is amplified. When the probe of the detector is kept near the joints of the SF6 filled equipment and if SF6 leaks out there will be variation in amplified valve of current due to electron absorption by SF6. The variation can be directly calibrated to indicate the magnitude of the leak.

9.2. Detention of presence of conducting particles:

            This is done by conducting a dielectric test when the test voltage is applied there will be an internal corona if metallic particle or sharp comers are present. The presence of internal discharges is located with the help of an ultrasonic detector which is very sensitive in detecting noise due to internal corona. The sector translates the ultrasonic vibrations into audible frequencies and directly indicates the intensity of sound in decibels. The probe is pressed firmly against the grounded enclosure tube while the conductor is energized at varying AC I DC voltage. If the noise disappears at low voltage, appears at some intermediate voltage and the intensity continues to increase, it is certain that the noise is due to internal corona. It has also been observed that in some cases the small sharp potty branched in areas of high dielectric stress get burnt or the particles driven to low stress areas. The effect of conducting particles on the break down strength of SF6 is more serious for power frequency voltage test than for impulses voltage.

10. Performance of SF6 Breaker:

            SF6 gas circuit breaker combines the advantageous features minimum oil and air blast breakers and exhibits a number of additional advantages over both.

            1)It is possible to have large number of breaking operations near full breaking                                    capacity with out any undue wear.

            2)Because of the fast recovery of dielectric strength across the parting contacts                                  during interruption.

                        a) These breakers are restrict free while switching of capacitive currents.

                        b) These breakers are incentive to short time faults and are capable of                                                    breaking at every high values of RRRV and

                        c) These breakers are suitable for multi-short re closing with out any reduction                                in breaking capacity

            3)There is no necessity to change any parts in the breaking chamber even after                                   a period often years of service in the actual system. This means that there are                                       practically no problem of maintenance for SF6 breakers.

            4)The operation is noiseless since the gas is used in a closed circuit. There will                                   be no discharge of arc products into atmosphere.

            5)Puffer type breakers are autonomous and independent because no auxiliary                                 equipment is required.

            6)Fire hazards are eliminated.


A relay is an electrical switch that opens and closes under the control of another electric circuit. In the original form, the switch is operated by an electromagnet to open or close one or many sets of contacts.


When a current flows through the coil, the resulting magnetic field attracts an armature that is mechanically linked to a moving contact. The movement either makes or breaks a connection with a fixed contact. When the current to the coil is switched off, the armature is returned by a force approximately half as strong as the magnetic force to its relaxed position. Usually this is a spring, but gravity is also used commonly in industrial motor starters. Most relays are manufactured to operate quickly. In a low voltage application, this is to reduce noise. In a high voltage or high current application, this is to reduce arcing.

If the coil is energized with DC, a diode is frequently installed across the coil, to dissipate the energy from the collapsing magnetic field at deactivation, which would otherwise generate a spike of voltage and might cause damage to circuit components. Some automotive relays already include that diode inside the relay case. Alternatively a contact protection network, consisting of a capacitor and resistor in series, may absorb the surge. If the coil is designed to be energized with AC, a small copper ring can be crimped to the end of the solenoid. This “shading ring” creates a small out-of-phase current, which increases the minimum pull on the armature during the AC cycle.

By analogy with the functions of the original electromagnetic device, a solid-state relay is made with a thyristor or other solid-state switching device. To achieve electrical isolation an optocoupler can be used which is a light – emitting diode (LED) coupled with a photo transistor.

Types of relay

   Latching relay

   Reed relay

   Mercury-wetted relay

   Polarized relay

      Machine tool relay

      Contactor relay

      Solid state contactor relay

      Buchholz relay

      Forced-guided contacts relay

      Solid-state relay

     Overload protection relay

      Pole & Throw

The following types of relays are commonly encountered:

SPST – Single Pole Single Throw. These have two terminals which can be connected or disconnected. Including two for the coil, such a relay has four terminals in total. It is ambiguous whether the pole is normally open or normally closed. The terminology “SPNO” and “SPNC” is sometimes used to resolve the ambiguity.

SPDT – Single Pole Double Throw. A common terminal connects to either of two others. Including two for the coil, such a relay has five terminals in total.

DPST – Double Pole Single Throw. These have two pairs of terminals. Equivalent to two SPST switches or relays actuated by a single coil. Including two for the coil, such a rel
ay has six terminals in total. It is ambiguous whether the poles are normally open, normally closed, or one of each.

DPDT – Double Pole Double Throw. These have two rows of change-over terminals. Equivalent to two SPDT switches or relays actuated by a single coil. Such a relay has eight terminals, including the coil.

QPDT – Quadruple Pole Double Throw. Often referred to as Quad Pole Double Throw, or 4PDT. These have four rows of change-over terminals. Equivalent to four SPDT switches or relays actuated by a single coil, or two DPDT relays. In total, fourteen terminals including the coil.

      Protective relay

      Overcurrent rela

      Distance relay



            Electrical systems by nature involve two forms of protection over current and over voltage since over current protection of electrical equipment’s are well known to all, it is not elaborated here. Over voltage protection on the other hand, remains a relatively new subject to many engineers. Both types of protection equally necessary for safe system operation.

            The importance of over voltage protection for a power system can not be over emphasized. Major equipment failures, expensive repairs, personnel safety and plant down time are certain consequences of inadequate protection from voltage surges.

            Surge arresters are designed to limit dangerous system over voltages. Whether lighting-or System- produced-to safe values when they occur on power systems. An arresters is a voltage limiting device. The functions are to discharge energy associated with a system over voltage condition, limit and interruption the power fellow current that follows the transient current through the arresters and return to an insulating state prepared for the next over voltage occurrence.

            In performing its voltage limiting function, certain protective characteristics of the arrester must be coordinated with the prevailing insulation levels on the system being protected. Insulation is a basic factor that must be considered in the application of arresters on a system. Insulation co-ordination is only a small part of the over all subject of arrester application. Several other factors must also be considered by the engineer when selecting surge protection. The location of the arresters, the inter-connection of ground leads, the insulation level of the protected equipment and the rating of the surge arresters are important in protecting equipment from harmful over voltage.

II.Surge Arrester operation:

            The basic operation of a surge arrester is single. In its noffi1al state, an arrester must act as an insulator. When a high voltage surge occurs. The arrester must cease to be an insulator and must turn into a short to-ground-in million thus of a second. The operation of the most widely used type of surge arresters the value, type of arrester is dealt with. Other types of arresters, such as expulsion arresters and line Oxide arresters (Gapless arresters) are either on the decline or too new for a general discussion at this time. The active elements of a valve type arrester are the spark gap and the valve block. these are housed in a porcelain shell for atmospheric protection and external insulation.

            The gap assembly consists of a number of in-series air gaps with sufficient dielectric strength to withstand the highest power frequency on the system. During severe over voltage conditions, the gap must always, breakdown at a voltage level some what below the insulation withstand voltage level of the equipment it is protecting, other wise equipment damage and or plant down time will result. the gap therefore serves as the switch which turns on the arrester. the voltage level at which the arrester goes from the passive (insulating) to the active (conducting) state, is called the spark over voltage.

            The valve block controls what happens after the arrester has been turned on. If only a gap is used, once a surge has been diverted to ground, a dead short circuit exists between line and ground and the 50 hertz-system energy tries to flow to ground causing a fuse, re-closer or breaker to operate to interrupt the system fault current.

            The valve element does exactly as its name implies. It conducts when surge current is flowing and it ceases to conduct when 50 Hz line current begins to flow. the valve block is able to do this because It is made of a non-linear resistance material, silicon carbide. The valve block offers a very high resistance to 50 Hz current while displaying a low resistance to surge current. In addition, it also consumes the surge energy passes through it.

            Spark over and discharge voltage are the two protective characteristics of an arrester which are used in calculating margins of protection when studying insulation co-ordination. These protective characteristics are published by arrester manufacturers.

III. Arrester Classification :

            There are three classifications of surge arresters used for over voltage protection in a system.

1.Distribution Type:

            The arresters are generally used in distribution system for equipment protection. Standards distribution arresters are used for protecting oil. Insulated distribution transformers, these arresters are also used as line entrance arresters, for 11KV and 22KV lines. They are the lowest in cost.

2.Intermediate Type :

            These units cost approximately two or three times as much as equivalent distribution units. For this, the arrester offers lower maximum spark over and discharge voltage characteristics that afford a greater margin of protection plus the capability of discharging large surge levels. These arresters also have a pressure relief system to safely vent internal pressure if the unit falls before the porcelains shell has a chance to rupture. These arresters are used for the L.V. protection of Power transformers in sub-transmission sub-station i.e.110/33/22/11KV and 66/22/11KV sub-station.

3.Station Type:

            These arresters offer the best protective characteristics and the highest thermal capability but they cost about twice as much as equivalent intermediate units. Like intermediate arresters, station arresters have a pressure-relief system to safely vent internal pressure if the unit fails before a porcelain shell has a chance to rupture. These arresters are generally used in 230KV, 110KV and 66KV systems.

4.Basic insulation level:

            Basic Impulse Insulation Level (BIL) is the voltage level that equipment insulation is capable of withstanding without sustaining damage. The voltage withstand of insulation is function of time. Inorder to establish volt-time impulse insulation levels of transformers standard impulse tests standard voltage withstand tests are conducted on selected units as type test. Transformers are subjected to impulse voltage tests (at rated BIL) and a chopped wave test (15% above BIL). A steep front – of wave test (65% above BIL) is also performed on some units. A curve plotted through these three points defines the minimum insulation withstand curve for insulation co-ordination (Fig.3) The true withstand level for the transformer lies above the plotted curve.

5. Surge arrester a

            With an understanding of how an arrester performs its functions and a knowledge of equipment insulation, we can now move into the application area and consider the several factors that comprise surge arrester application as it relates to over voltage protection of transformers, The selection of surge arresters merit are carefully considered. Various factors have to be taken into account in order to arrive at a reliable and at the same time economical means of protection. The important points are:

            i)Selection of rated voltage.

            ii)Selection according to the standards, codes, recommendations for insulation coordination.

i)Arrester rating :

            The voltage rating of an arrester is defined as the highest 50 Hz voltage at which the arrester is  designed to operate and reseal effectively after a surge has passed. Because of the system grounding and connection, this, voltage is typically higher than the phase to ground voltage / on the healthy phases will increase temporarily and it depends upon the earthing factor or the system. The selection of an arrester voltage rating for station depends upon grounding system connection and system voltage rating.

            Also the voltage impressed across an arrester during a surge discharge is directly proportional to the arrester voltage rating that is, a 10,000 Amps surge produces a higher discharge voltage if it is flowed through a 10KV arrester than it does flowed through a 9KV arrester generally it is desirable from the stand  point of equipment protection to select the lowest voltage rating for the application.

ii)Arrester location:

            Surge arresters should always be located as close as possible to the terminals of the equipment protected. In the case of transformer protection, mounting the arresters directly on the transformer is the best of insurance. An appreciable distance between the surge arrester, and the protected equipment reduces protection, afforded by the arresters and also increases the voltage impressed upon the transformer at time of surge discharge. Also because of the extra travel distance between the equipment and its arrester, surge wave could rise above the equipment damage point before the arrester comes to its rescue.

            n addition, the arrester connecting leads should be kept as short as possible because of their voltage contribution to discharge the voltage. During current flow to ground through an arrester, the interconnecting leads provide a voltage contribution because of current passing through an impedance. Depending on surge magnitude, rate of rise type of conductor, a typical value of voltage contribution to discharge voltage by interconnecting leads is i.e. 1.6 KV / foot.

            In practice, the protection range is given by the following simple formula.

                        L          =          U – Ua  x V     Where

                                                2 X S

                        L          =          Protection range of arrester in meters

                                                (measured along the line)

                        U         =          Impulse withstand voltage of protected equipment in KV.                                                   (BIL of equipment)

                        Ua       =          Spark over voltage of an arrester in K. V. (Peak) of the system.                                                       During earth fault conditions, the voltage

                        V         =          Velocity of wave progression with

                                                V line              =          300 meters /micro  sec.

                                                V cable            =          150 meters /micro  sec.

                        S          =          Steepness of incoming wave front in KV /  sec.


            (The protection range of an arrester increases with the difference between the impulse voltage IV’ and the spark over voltage Va. Therefore, an arrester with protective level tends to extend the protective range)

iii)Interconnection of Grounds:

            It is essential that the arrester ground terminal be interconnected with the transformer tank and secondary neutral to provide reliable surge protection for the transformers.

Iv)Insulation coordination: .

            Now let us consider the selection of an arrester according to standards, codes or recommendations for insulation coordination. Calculating the margin of protection is the  major part of an. insulation co-ordination study. Insulation coordination is the process of comparing the impulse strength of insulation with the voltage that can occur across the arrester for the severity of surge discharge for which the protection is desired. For a transformer, this means a comparison of the volt-time insulation withstand curve with the impulse and switching surge spark over and discharge voltage curve of the arrester.

            After determining the rated voltage of an arrester, the protective level has to be carefully selected. For complete protection of the equipment, the “protective level” viz. the level to which the over voltages are omitted by the arrester, must be lower than the withstand level by a factor of at least 1.2 for lightning surges and 15 for switching surges. The value thus selected must be checked against that given in I.S.S. or the technical details furnished by the arrester manufactures.

            To arrive at the discharge voltage of an arrester for these calculations discharge voltage for a 10,000 Amps. surge is normally used. The following formula define these two margins of protection calculations:

                                    CWW -FOW SO                    BIL -DV + IX)

            MP1 =                         CWW      x 100% MP2           =           BIL      x 100%


CWW              = Chopped -waved withstand voltage of transformer winding = 1.15 BIL

FOW SO         = Front of wave spark over of surge arrester in KV (Crest)

BIL                 = Basic Impulse Insulation level of the transformer.

DV                  = Discharge voltage of the arrester at 10 KA surge.

IX                    =  Voltage contribution of connecting leads at the rate of 1.6 KV / ft.

MP                  =  Margin of Protection

            Insulation co-ordination in an important aspect to be considered when surge protective is to be afforded to transformers with reduced BILS

vi Protection against direct strokes:

i)          Protection against direct strokes can be handled by s
hielding the station equipment’s by                the provision of either

            a)         Mast or rods or

            b)         a net work of overhead ground wires in such a way that equipment’s and switches                                     of all lie in the protected zone.

ii)         The protected zone for a rod mast is generally assumed as a cone with a base radius                       equal to the height of the rod or mast above ground.

iii)        For small sub-stations it may be sufficient to run one or GI wires across the station                        from adjacent line towers. Extra wires may be run from the tower to the structure and                over the station.

iv)        The grounds of the station shield should be solidly tied to the station ground bus to                       prevent difference of surge potential between the shield and other g-rounded parts of                    the Station.


            Prevention of damages to equipment’ s and men working on then due to any accidents is an essential aspect in any establishment. Prevention of accident which is an unforeseen one is more essential aspect of any establishment / organisation.

            As accidents occur mainly due to unsafe execution, actions and circumstances, these accidents can be avoided by adopting safety precautions, implementing safety procedures and following safety rules.

General safety methods:

I.          While execution of any work, that part of equipment or line is to be isolated from the                    supply.

2.         Using discharge rods, charging, current if any is to be discharged.

3.         Using Earth rods, all phases/conducting path are to be property earthed by securing                       good Earthing.

4.         When even opening an AB switch or removing of fuse, it is also advisable and                   preferable to wear rubber gloves.

5.         Use of belt rope is another safety method to be adopted to work on elevated places.

Safety methods to be adopted in Sub-Stations :

            In any work is to be attended to any line, first and fore most item of work is to get proper approval from the competent controlling authority for execution of the work specifying the date, time, duration,  place of work, affected parties etc. .

            For Grid feeders and Stations, the authorized officer for issue of approval is S.E.               (L.D. Centre), Madras, For 110 KV, 66 KV, radial feeders Superintending Engineer /                        Distribution is the approving authority. Similarly for 33 KV Divisional Engineer incharge of distribution is the approving authority.

             Above details with the list of authorised officers is enclosed herewith (enclosure I)

             Without obtaining proper approval from the competent authority, no L.C. should be issued nor availed by anybody. If the above procedure is not followed, it is nothing but a suicidal. Further it also amounts to murder of others.

            So, after getting proper approval, line clear is to be  issued to the requested party. But the issue and receiver should be aware/have full knowledge about the SS equipment’s, control room panel details etc.,

The line clear issuing person should clearly record the following:

            a) Which breaker have been tripped

            b) Which A.B. switches were opened

            c) Where Earthing was done

            d) What is the Safer place / Line to carry on the execution of work

Safety arrangements in control room:

1)         Key Board should be in open condition so that the keys could be taken out quickly                       during any urgency.

            Line clear keyboard should be in locked up condition to prevent other persons from           using the keys inside, before the cancellation of the Line clear permit.

The keys should be placed in the key board in an orderly manner according to their numbers. Otherwise, the required lock could not be opened in time and the possibility of opening a wrong lock may happen.

2)         Rubber mat should be provided on the floor in front of the panel board.

3)         The following details should be clearly displayed in the control room.

                        Approved operating instructions for all equipment’s.

                        Break down instructions.

Operating instructions including for the emergency operations to be carried out in the event of operation of buchholz relay. Differential relay, Group control trip, total supply failure, grid failure. The operator should be fully conversant with the above instructions and   the must be able to act quickly and effectively.

4)         The Board containing D.C. cable layout. A cable layout panel wiring diagram and Earthing layout should be displayed in the control room. This is necessary to attend the faults immediately after their occurrence.

5)         D.C. Earth leakage test system should be available.

6)         There should not be any defective power plugs, switches and bulb holders in the    control room wiring.

7)         One artificial respirator should be available in ready condition.

8)         Stools made of insulating material should be used for operating high tension          communication equipment’s (Telephones).

9)         Adequate number of rubber gloves, belt ropes, discharge rods, and earth rods in     good condition should be available in the control room.

Battery room:

1.         Battery room should be in locked up condition.

“Naked flame is prohibited inside of the battery room” and “Smoking prohibited” warnings should be kept written on the battery room door.

2.         One exhaust fan should be functioning.

3.         Accurate D.C. cell testing volt meters, hydro meters and thermometers should be               available in the battery room.

4.         Pilot cell voltage, specific gravity and temperature should be taken every week.

5.         The specific gravity should not be maintained below 1195 at 15.6°C and below 1183                    at 32. 20°C. The battery should not be allowed to discharge below 1160.

6.         Cell voltage should be maintained between 1.95 V to 2.05 V. The battery should not                     be allowed to discharge below 1.85 V.

7.         Battery should be allowed neither to over charge not to undercharge. It should not also                 be kept idle.

8.         Electrolyte level must be checked in every shift. It must be ensured that the level is                       10mm above the top of the plates.

9.         Weak cells should be rectified then and there.

While taking specific gravity readings, care must be taken not to allow the acid to                         come in contact with the eyes.

Safety adopted for transformers:

1.         Transformers are to be maintained periodically as per schedule. Switches on HV side                     and LV side are to be isolated after reducing the Load by tripping the breakers.

2.         Kiosks and OCB : All the Live parts of the kiosk should have H. T. insulation tape. To be protected by wiremesh. It should be vermin proof. Keys are to be kept with interlock. When ever to open the door of the kiosk, kiosk should be tripped link should be opened by the interlock key. The opening of the links are to be verified physically. After doing all the above precautions, the tank should be lowered down. Proper care is to be taken and it should be kept in mind that supply is available at the roofing.

            Oil leak should be arrested. Back feeding is avoided.

            Cotton waste should not be used for cleaning purpose.

3.         AB switches:

Handle of the AB switch is to be earthed properly. Blades should be kept at opening position. It should not be closed automatically, proper maintenance is to be done for this. AB switch blades are to be opened fully. AB switches are to be kept locked on both            conditions. AB switches are to be opened only after tripping the breakers.

4.         Lightning arresters :

            Lightning arresters are used to bypass the sudden lightning surges and thereby to protect the equipment’s.Only after proper discharging is done on lightning arresters, it should be attempted to attend to maintenance.Fencing is to be provided around lightning arresters. Door arrangements with lock is to be provided. Separate earth connections are to be provided for lightning arresters.

 5.        Current transformers:

            Current transformer secondary side is to be short circuited during maintenance and testing. Before doing any testing, the current transformers are to be discharged.

6.         Potential transformers:

            Potential transformers primary side is to be Earthed during maintenance and testing. Secondary side is to be earthed at only one place. Whenever giving connection, or removing meters on the secondary side of die potential transformer, the fuses are to be removed and renewed.

7.         Capacitors and H. T. Coupling capacitor:

            Capacitors should be provided inside fencing. Before attempting to do any work, proper discharging is to be done. They only it should be attempted for maintenance work. Proper Earthing should be provided during the execution of the work. After completion of the work, Earthing is to be removed.

8.         Earth pits:

            Sub-station earth connections should be properly maintained so that the earth            resistance is minimum. Water should be poured in the earth pits daily. Earth connections, must be capable of protecting the persons working in the electrical equipment’s and protect in the equipment’s during heavy fault current. Earth resistance should not exceed the following limits.

            Grid stations: I Ohm Other sub-stations ..2 Ohm.

            Distribution transformers ..5 Ohm.

            They must be a clearance of 5 feet, between the sub-station fence and the electrical equipment’s / live points. The fence should be earthed at every 200 feet, separately. Generally the fence Earthing should not be linked with the sub-station Earthing. But if the clearance  is less than 5 ft. feet fence Earthing must be linked with the sub-stations Earthing. The iron gates in the sub-station fence should also be earthed separately.

9.         Fire fighting equipments:

            These equipment’s are to be kept on good and working condition. Proper schedule of maintenance is to be done for keeping them in good conditions. These equipment’s should be kept at an easily accessible place so as to use them immediately under emergency. Dry sand heaps are to be available wherever necessary. Empty buckets are to be provided.

 10.      S.S. Yard:

            1.         S.S. yard should be provided with fencing.

            2.         Unauthorised persons should not enter into the yard

            3.         Cable ducks are to be provided with slabs.

            4.         Best illumination is to be provided for the yard.

            5.         A warning board with a display that “Umbrella” stick Dogs should not be brought                         inside the  yard” is to be provided at the entrance of the yard.

            6.         A separate room is to- be provided for keeping the empty drums. At the                                         entrance of the room “No smoking” Board is to be provided.


1.         The territory of the work spot which was declared safety to work is to be clearly identified by tying a rope. Inside this boundary is to be further identified by hanging a green flag. Outside this boundary where it is unsafe to work is to be identified by a red flag.

2.         Wherever necessary caution boards like “Men on working” “Don’t Switch on“ Safe for work” etc., are to be provided.

3.         If any unauthorized, unskilled staff happen to go near the equipment’s he can do so with the assistance and under the vigil of an experienced, authorised staff.

4.         Conversation is strictly prohibited wile execution of any work. It should be                        totally avoided especially when work is being carried out on any bus bars.

5.         Placing the materials, tools and plants and men are to be at a safety clearance from the Live. parts.

            6.         T & Ps like spanners etc. are to be lifted and brought down only by means of                                 ropes and not by throwing and catching.

7.         Study and safe ladder with steps at convenient intervals is to be used. To avoid slippage of the ladder, necessary precaution is to be taken at the bottom of the ladder by providing empty gunnies.

            8.         Lifting of any ladder or rods (Earth) are to be done only horizontally. Vertical

                         lifting may cause damages by interrupting with the safe clearances.

            9          The bus and line links art’; to be kept opened while doing work on OCB and


How to Get the Most out of Exhibitions

Exhibitions are one of the most powerful, versatile and costeffective tools available. To get the most out of them, check out our top tips on effective exhibiting, covering everything from setting objectives and designing your stand, to following up and measuring effectiveness.

A strategic marketing tool – Exhibitions, like advertising, direct mail, PR and direct selling, are a strategic sales and marketing tool. They should be used as part of an overall marketing strategy, not in isolation.

Consider the benefits – To make the most of your participation, you need to understand exactly what benefits exhibitions offer:

Highly targeted – With their carefully focused profiles, and highly targeted audiences, exhibitions allow you to direct your sales and marketing effort accurately and cost-effectively, with minimum wastage.

The buyer comes to you – Exhibition visitors are pro-active buyers. They make a conscious decision to attend, and set aside valuable time to do so. Many are specifiers and influencers who it might otherwise be impossible to identify.

3D sales & promotion – Nothing beats the impact of a live demonstration. At an exhibition, buyers can see, taste, touch and try your product for themselves.

Face to face contact – The most persuasive form of selling, and of building customer relationships.

Neutral sales environment – The buyer feels under no great pressure to buy, while the seller is not intimidated by visiting the buyer on his home territory.

Fast market penetration – You can reach a large proportion of the market in a short space of time, achieving more in four days thankyou might otherwise achieve in months.

A powerful combination – Exhibitions combine the mass reach of advertising, the targeting of direct mail, the persuasive power of face-to-face selling, and the networking benefits of the Internet, to create a unique environment in which a wide range of sales and marketing objectives can be pursued, either singly, or side by side.

Prepare Some Preliminary Costings – Costs vary enormously depending on the type of presence you want to have. A shell stand/pipe and drape can cost you less than a page of trade press advertising, but you will need to spend at least the same amount again on equipping, manning and promoting the stand.

Be Realistic About Your Expectations – Exhibitions generate millions of dollars worth of business every year but it is unusual for exhibitors to do so during the event. For most companies, the orders will come in the weeks and months after the show. You must be prepared to pursue your leads vigorously, and to track them on an on-going basis, so that they can trace as many sales as possible back to source.

Exhibitions Require Time and Effort – Don’t underestimate the amount of planning and preparation required to exhibit successfully. Effective planning and followup can mean the difference between a bad show experience and a good one. But it can also mean the difference between a good show, and a truly exceptional one.

Maximise the opportunity – Exhibitions are suitable for a wide range of specific sales and marketing goals, of which the most widely used are:

Generating sales leads – Reach large numbers of buyers in just a few days, and maximise sales impact through product display and demonstration. Exhibition enquiries have an excellent conversion rate when followed up after the show.

Launching a new product or service – Stands featuring new products are a major attraction for buyers and the media, the vast majority of whom attend exhibitions ‘to see what’s new’.

Penetrating a new market – Exhibiting is one of the quickest and most cost-effective means of exploring and entering a new market, providing mass exposure and an instant database of qualified sales prospects.

Building customer loyalty – Regular contact with customer’s shows that you care and exhibitions are an extremely time and cost-efficient means of keeping in touch.

Positioning/repositioning a company/brand – Exhibitions can be used to quickly establish a new identity or change market perceptions about a company and its capabilities.

Market research – Exhibitions bring together a complete crosssection of a market, making them ideal for customer research and offering instant feedback.

Building media relations – Exhibitions offer a rare opportunity to meet and influence the press ‘en masse’ and to generate coverage on new products or services, and or company developments.

Recruiting new agents or distributors – Agents and distributors use trade exhibitions to find new companies to represent. If you are looking for new representatives, be sure to highlight the fact in your catalogue entry, and on the stand.

Obtaining competitive intelligence – Exhibitions are an excellent place to observe competitors and assess their products and marketing messages.

Set clear objectives – Choose the exhibition to suit your objectives, and not the other way around. It may sound obvious, but companies have been known to book into events that can’t deliver their target audience in sufficient numbers to make their presence worthwhile.

Be consistent – Exhibition objectives should be consistent with your company’s wider marketing strategies/goals. This way, advertising, PR, direct mail personal selling and exhibition activities are working to reinforce each other, rather than in isolation.

Set achievable targets – Nothing is more likely to demotivate staff than goals they can’t possibly achieve, whereas realistic targets when accomplished are a real stimulus to effort.

Prioritise your objectives – If you have more than one objective, rank them in order of priority so you are clear where your greatest efforts should be directed. Don’t try to do too much, or your resources will be stretched and your participation will lack focus.

Communicate your objectives – Objectives, having been established must be communicated to the entire exhibition team, so that everyone pulls together and shares a common sense of purpose.

Appoint an exhibition co-ordinator – Put one person in charge of the project with overall responsibility for planning, budgeting, stand management etc – someone with authority who can see the project successfully through to its conclusion.

Appoint a reputable stand designer – Draw up a shortlist of suppliers and put the job out to tender. Insist on seeing a portfolio of each company’s work. Talk to previous clients and ensure they are capable of working on time and within budget.

Set measurable objectives – Set achievable targets against which to measure your success. If generating sales leads, for example, base your target around your potential audience, number of stand staff and total number of opening hours.

Read the manual – Read your exhibitor’s manual carefully, as soon as you receive it, paying particular attention to stand rules and regulations, and noting the deadline dates for returning order forms. Late orders and last-minute changes may incur a surcharge.

Confirm your exhibits – Give your product managers plenty of warning, to ensure products are available and in a suitable condition for display. If exhibiting working equipment, remember to organise spares in case of breakdown

Publicise your presence – Prepare your press release(s) and catalogue entry and submit them by the deadline date. Mail ou
t invitations to your prospects, giving them an incentive to visit your stand. Event web sites offer many publicity opportunities – check out your options.

Check out stand packages – Many organisers offer ‘stand packages’ comprising space, modular stand/pipe and drape, furniture, lighting etc for an all-in price. Promotional packages are also commonly available. They are an excellent aid to budgeting and cost control, and can save much administrative time and effort.

Co-ordinate media activities – Maximise your promotional budget by coordinating your exhibition promotions with other media activities. Drop a flash on your trade adverts saying ‘see us on stand XXX’, include invitations in direct mail, and publicise your participation in customer newsletters and on your web site.

Prepare a detailed budget – Anticipate all likely items of expenditure before committing money, prepare a detailed budget breakdown, keep a close eye on expenditure, and a central record of all purchase orders and invoices.

Select and brief stand staff– Select staff early to ensure availability and allow adequate time for training. Draw up a duty roster and ensure all staff are fully briefed on the stand exhibits, their role, and the company’ objectives.

Devise an efficient system for handling enquiries – The way you capture and qualify visitor information at show will determine the speed and efficiency with which you can follow up leads. Devise an ‘enquiry form’ for use by stand staff on which vital visitor details can be quickly recorded (e.g. products of interest, purchasing authority, date of intended purchase etc)

Draw up a timetable of key tasks – Using the manual, and working backwards from the exhibition, draw up a timetable of key tasks, highlighting who is responsible, and deadline dates for completion. Copy it to all involved in the exhibition effort.

Establish clear lines of communication – Breakdown of communication is a major cause of problems at exhibitions. Make it clear to your suppliers and the organiser who their points of contacts are. Hold regular briefing sessions with the team to keep everyone up to date on developments.

Prepare to follow-up leads – Exhibition leads are hot leads if properly qualified. Fast and efficient follow up is essential to reap the maximum sales return. Establish a plan of action before the event, and be sure to allocate sufficient time and people to the task. All leads should be contacted within a week of the exhibition if possible, two at the most.

Budgeting and cost control Plan ahead – Consider your exhibition requirements for the whole year. Modular stand systems can be adapted to suit a wide range of sites, and re-used in part or whole to suit your needs.

Consider a stand package – Many organisations offer stand package options for shell scheme/pipe and drape exhibitors, inclusive of everything from furniture and floor coverings to electrics and power – an excellent way to control costs, as you are aware of your commitments up-front.

Draw up a detailed budget – Look at your objectives, determine the essential tasks necessary to achieve them and then estimate the costs involved. This will give you a minimum budget on which to build. Be sure to anticipate all likely items of expenditure. Be generous when allocating funds: add 10% to all anticipated costs.

Record your spending – Keep an on-going record of expenditure against budget and a central file of all purchase orders and invoices. Note reasons for overspend to help you plan more efficiently and budget more effectively next time around.

Return all forms by the deadline – Late orders and last minute charges often incur a surcharge.

Think ‘exhibition presence’ not ‘exhibition stand’ – Don’t make the common mistake of blowing your entire budget on stand design. Remember to allocate sufficient funds to promotion, staff training and subsistence, and post show activities such as telemarketing and direct mail, to convert leads into sales.

Choose a reliable stand designer – If you are opting for a custom-build stand, choose a designer with a proven ability to work to schedule, and within budget. Contact your exhibition contractors association for a list of members. Talk to previous clients about the company’s track record.

Go straight to a stand contractor – Going straight to a stand contractor is likely to be a more economical solution for exhibitors on a limited budget, particularly if you take the modular approach, as many contractors include free design consultancy as part of the overall stand package.

Take advantage of free publicity – Editorial coverage is one of the best endorsements your company can achieve (assuming it’s positive!). And it’s free. Take time preparing your press pack and circulate it in good time to the exhibition’s PR agent and trade press.

Sales literature costs money! – Don’t leave expensive brochures on the stand for all and sundry to pick up. Produce a concise sales leaflet for general distribution and keep the glossies back for those with a genuine interest.

Keep a tight control on expenses – Establish at the outset exactly what costs the company will pick up. Give staff a ‘per day’ allowance for meals and entertainment – any expenses over and above this should be paid for by the individual and reimbursed after, if appropriate. Keep alcohol and telephones on the stand locked away at night.

Choosing, designing and building your stand Review your options
• Shell scheme/Pipe and drape A modular system, erected by the organisers on your behalf, comprising side and rear walls, carpet and name board. Stand fittings can be hired as required and ‘stand packages’ complete with furniture, lighting and power are often available. Ideal for first time exhibitors, those with limited budgets and/or administrative resources, and those looking to control costs.
• Modular display system Available in a growing range of styles, shapes and materials, allowing a high quality presence for much less that it would cost on a custom built stand. Can be quickly erected and dismantled, reducing contractors costs on site, and are re-usable enabling costs to be spread across several events.
• Custom-designed & purpose built For companies who want total freedom of expression and a truly individual exhibition presence. Expensive, because they can rarely be re-used. For this reason, ‘half-and-half solutions, – re-usable modular interiors around which are constructed ‘one-off’ exteriors are increasingly favoured for the cost savings that can be made.

Determine Stand Size – Your stand size should be determined by your objectives: i.e. by the type and number of exhibits, the amount of free floor space needed for visitors (bearing in mind the number of leads you are aiming to take), the features you need to include reception desk, storage space, hospitality area etc. and, of course, by your budget.

Check proposed site for service access – If you are demonstrating working machinery check the positioning of service ducts before confirming your stand site, or you may be forced to compromise on your display. Check for the presence of supporting columns, for the same reason. For large exhibits, consider the proximity of the stand for good access, and for convenient disposal of waste from working machinery demonstrations.

Prepare a written design brief – This should detail your objectives, exhibits, service requirements, graphic requirements and stand facilities, and include information on design rules and regulations, cri
tical dates and budget.

Draw up a short list of suppliers – To protect your investment, and ensure good standards of service and workmanship, stick to reputable suppliers. Call your exhibition contractors association for a list of members. Insist on seeing a portfolio of their work. Talk to previous clients to make sure they are capable of delivering on time and within budget.

Put the job out to tender – To get the best overall design solution and value for money, space-only stands should be put out to tender, ideally to three of four companies. For large or complex products, you may have to pay for detailed proposals.

Prepare a budget and work schedule – Having appointed a designer/contractor establish, in writing, exactly what they are responsible for. Confirm the budget and get a detailed breakdown of costs. Agree a work schedule and establish clear reporting procedures. If the stand is big or complex, visit the contractor to see work in progress and be present on site during build-up, not just on the final day.

Check conformity with rules and regulations – All exhibition stands must conform to certain regulations covering height, loading, fitting, building materials etc. and these will be detailed in your exhibitor manual. Designs for ‘space only’ stands must be submitted to the organisers for approval.

Arrange essential services – Electricity, water, waste disposal, gas, lifting and telephone connections must be booked through the official contractor via order forms in the Exhibitor Manual. If in doubt about your requirements, talk to the contractor to ensure sufficient supply.

Organise transportation, handling and storage – Ensure all packages and crates are clearly labelled with your hall and stand number, and that someone is on site when the goods are delivered. Organisers will not accept them on your behalf, and packages have a habit of going astray. Most venues will not have space for empty packaging cases – you’ll need to make arrangements with your shipping agent.

Allow sufficient time for installation – The show goes on whether your stand is ready or not. Make sure that the complex stand your designer is proposing can be built in the build-up time available. Shell scheme visitors shouldn’t underestimate the amount of time it takes to install an effective display. Don’t leave it until the last minute and assume it will all look OK – it won’t.

Leave your site as you found it – At the end of the event, you will be required to leave your stand space as you found it and pay for any clearance or make good any damage.

The essence of good stand design Form should follow function – Before you consider what your stand will look like, you need to be clear about what you want it to DO for you. What are you going to exhibit? How many visitors are you hoping to attract? Will you require a reception desk, demonstration area, lounge area, an office? How much storage space will you need?

Choose a design that fits your image – The design of your stand says a lot about your company. Think carefully about what image you want to project. Do you want to appear friendly and customer-orientated, prestigious, high tech or go getting? Brief your designer accordingly. Shell scheme exhibitors should pay careful attention to graphics. Displays cobbled together at the last minute from cheap materials do nothing for a company’s image as a professional organisation.

Beware of psychological barriers – The more open a stand, the more likely people are to step aboard. Platforms can act as a psychological barrier and are best avoided.

Don’t try to dictate traffic flow – Freedom of movement is fundamental to good stand design. If you try to control traffic flow around your stand too rigidly, you will expand all your energy directing visitors rather than doing business with them.

Movement excites interest – A moving exhibit is much more likely to attract the eye than a static one. If your product or service cannot be demonstrated, look at other ways of creating movement for example, through the use of light, audio-visual displays or rotating signs and display plinths.

Height increases visibility – The best space only stands also call attention to themselves from a distance. Height need not be expensive – a simple column or pillar with your company name on can be extremely effective. Remember, too, in some venues visitors will be looking down at you from a gallery. Use every design opportunity to attract their attention.

Say what you do – Don’t assume that everyone will know what you do from your company name alone. If you’re not a household name, or it’s not immediately obvious from your display what you can offer, use graphics to spell it out.

Promote benefits, not features – Exhibits should be presented as solutions to specific needs and problems. Don’t bury benefits in a long list of features. If your products are the fastest, quietest, most durable or economical on the market, say so. Keep detailed technical data to hand in a brochure.

Keep your stand messages brief – Visitors are bombarded with information at exhibitions and can only take in so much. Where possible, stick to bold headlines and, if necessary, bullet points.

Don’t skimp on photography – Photographs are a universal language and have great visual appeal assuming of course, that you use good images. One of the most common complaints from stand designers concerns the poor quality of photographic material they are given to work with. If photographs form an important part of your display, plan ahead.

Ensure text can be easily read – Text should be placed at eye level or higher on the stand. Upper and lower case print is much easier to read than block capitals. If you do use longer text, stick to short sentences and paragraphs and use clear, well-spaced type.

If it’s new say so! – The word ‘new’ is one of the most powerful words in advertising. If you are exhibiting a product or service for the first time, label it accordingly on the stand for all to see. Publicising your presence Start with your objectivesDifferent objectives require different promotional strategies. For example, if you want to raise awareness of a new company or product, banner advertising and sponsorship will ensure a high profile. If you have already identified your prospects, carefully targeted direct mail and exclusive stand invitations would be more appropriate.

Co-ordinate your activities carefully – Exhibitions should be treated as an integral part of your marketing effort not as isolated events on the marketing calendar. Use the event to reinforce themes running in other media; put ‘see us at “..” flashes on existing advertising; promote your participation on your web site, and in customer newsletters.

Read the publicity guide – Most events prepare a full guide to publicity. Make sure it is forwarded to the right person your marketing manager, or PR agency); take advantage of all free publicity opportunities; and be sure to meet all deadlines.

Invite your customers and prospects – Recent research has shown that 83% of the most successful exhibitors (in terms of business generated and leads collected) had mailed their customers and prospects before the show. (Source: Centre for Exhibition Industry Research). You can mail your own lists, buy a list or mail the event’s list of pre-registrants. Include a ticket and a covering letter and/or incentive giving them particular reasons to visit your stand.

Submit a catalogue entry – Exhibition directories/catalogues are the definitive guid
e to who is exhibiting, what they are showing and where they can be found. Available at show, they are increasingly published on event web sites to help attendees plan their visit. Use your free editorial entry to highlight new products/services and company developments, stressing benefits over features.

Prepare a press pack – Ideally, your pack should contain a press release (or releases) on new product launches or company developments, stressing the benefits; background information on the company, preferably in the form of a fact sheet; and photographs, clearly captioned.

Inform the media of your activities – Find out from the organisers which media are doing show previews (most show publicity guides carry a list). Note the deadlines and submit your news and photos in good time. Send your news to the event’s publicity manager too, for inclusion in the official show preview and review.

Consider sponsorship – Use sponsorship to stand out from the crowd. Most event’s offer a range of ‘off-the shelf’ sponsorship opportunities, from carrier bags and signage to seminar theatres and press offices. Better still, talk to the organisers about a sponsorship package tailored to your particular objectives.

Use the web to maximum advantage – Most events have their own web sites, and these are increasingly being used by visitors to plan their visit and maximise their time at show. Take advantage of all publicity opportunities including on-line catalogues and product directories, news pages, banner advertising and hyperlinks to your own site.

Mail additional prospects after the event – Mail the prospects you did not have time to meet, after the event. Many organisers make their attendance lists available to exhibitors, and you can often target very selectively, for example, by job title, product interest, geographical location etc. You can either rent the list for single use, or purchase it for adding to your own database of prospects.

Stand staffing and organisation appoint a Stand Manager – Stand managers need to be efficient, flexible, and diplomatic to deal with the many responsibilities at show, from motivating stand staff to liaising with contractors and welcoming important guests.

Choose your team carefully – Ensure the right balance of sales and technical staff, as well as senior managers. One of the greatest complaints from visitors about exhibitions concerns the lack of knowledge of stand staff. Buyers attend exhibitions with very specific questions on product performance, price and delivery. Make sure you have staff available who can answer them.

Pick staff that are willing and able – A positive attitude is vital if staff are to make the most of the event, and not undermine the enthusiasm of others.

Don’t skimp on numbers – Exhibitions are hard work. Allow for adequate cover during busy periods and rest breaks. The costs of bringing one ortwo more people will be outweighed by increased productivity.

Involve stand staff in the planning – If stand steel feel part of the project from the outset you’ll be much more likely to win their commitment and support.

Draw up a duty roster – Give staff adequate breaks to avoid fatigue and boredom. 2-3 hours is about the longest most people can sustain their energy levels. Copy the rota to all team members, so they know who is on duty at any given time.

Brief the team thoroughly – Hold a briefing session before the event, covering exhibition and personal objectives, exhibits, enquiry handling procedures, dress code, logistics, catering etc. Give each team member a written summary for reference on the site.

Stand ‘selling’ is a specialist skill – Set aside a day to teach the fundamentals of how to encourage visitors onto the stand, how to open and close conversations, how to qualify visitors, and the impact of their own body language. It will make a dramatic difference to performance.

Use an efficient lead-recording system – Devise a tailor-made lead recording form for fast completion. Products of interest, type of business, purchasing authority etc. can all be listed so each interviewer has simply to tick the appropriate box.

Use incentives to motivate staff – Set individual staff targets for lead gathering, and reward achievement. Run light-hearted competitions with prizes for the winners.

Look after staff comforts – Stay as near to the exhibition as possible to avoid long journeys. If you have a sizeable team, hire a minibus to ferry yourselves to and from the hotel. Provide wholesome food on the stand and plenty of soft drinks.

Establish some basic stand rules – Discipline is essential on an exhibition stand. Establish a few ground rules for staff, covering punctuality, dress code, wearing of badges, use of the hospitality area and the drinking of alcohol on the stand.

Keep your ‘house’ in order – Put a member of the staff in charge of everyday ‘housekeeping’, with responsibility for ensuring that the stand is kept tidy, ashtrays are empties, literature is replenished and any damages to the display are quickly fixed.

Ensure adequate security – Lock away valuables in an office or cabinet at night. Telephones and alcohol are particularly susceptible to abuse. Depending on the value of your exhibits, you may wish to hire your own security guard overnight.

Recognise and reward achievement – After the show, tell your team what was achieved, and ask their opinions on how the results could have been bettered. Repay their effort and commitment with a small token of thanks. If they feel appreciated, they will be much more likely to try even harder next time around.

Following up after the show – Plan your follow-up before the show – Set a deadline for making initial contact, and a system for ensuring that ALL leads not just the hottest, are pursued to a conclusion. If you don’t have the resources in-house, you should consider using the services of a mailing house or telemarketing agency.

Clear diaries for a week after the show – Make sure those responsible for lead follow up set aside sufficient time to complete the job. Set aside a week, possibly two, depending on the number of enquiries you expect to take.

Prioritise leads according to urgency – Categorise all enquiries as soon as possible – preferably, as they are taken on the stand. For example: A (definitely interested/ immediate buying intention); B (actively considering purchase within the next six months); C (gathering information for future reference.)

Follow up immediately – To maximise response you need to strike while the iron is hot. Category A leads should be dealt with immediately. Have a fax machine or office-linked computer on your stand, so they can be relayed to the office for immediate action. ALL leads should be responded to within a week, two at the most.

Be persistent – Most exhibition leads take between three and eight months to come to fruition. Those involving the purchase of capital equipment or other high costs can take much longer. Prospects must continue to be contacted at regular intervals until a sale is concluded, or the lead dries up.

Track all leads – Establish a central database of enquiries on computer. When distributing enquiry forms, retain a copy of each one in a central file, and record on it the name of the person to whom it has been distributed. Assign each lead a code so that it does not merge with the general sales database and can be tracked through to the accounts department for when the customer is invoiced.

sh an effective sales reporting system
– Getting sales people to record and report on the progress of enquiries is important if you are to have any financial measure of success. But it can be a problem, especially when dealing with regional offices. When distributing leads, attach a report form which must be completed and returned by a deadline date, indicating lead status. If the sale is ongoing, issue a second report with a new deadline, and so on until the lead is pursued to its conclusion.

Carry out a sales audit – An alternative to on-going lead tracking and sales reporting is to carry out a sales audit at an agreed period after the show. Ask each sales person to prepare a report indicating the status of all leads passed to them, the value of sales achieved, and anticipated value of future sales. Repeat the exercise at a later date.

Evaluating exhibition effectiveness Measure your results – Depending on your objectives, there are a number of ways to measure exhibition success. It is a good idea to use as many as possible, to get the fullest picture of your achievements:

Value of sales achieved. – Providing an efficient tracking system is used, it should be possible to ‘close the loop’ on many exhibition enquiries and assign a value to sales achieved. Number of leads qualified. Does the number match your target? What is the quality of the leads? Cost per useful contact. Divide the total cost of exhibiting by the number of leads generated to help establish the cost-effectiveness of the exercise.

Number of new contacts made. – Compare the list of enquiries with your existing customer database. How many are new contacts? How would you have otherwise made these contacts?

Levels of customer/market awareness. – Survey a cross section of visitors after the event asking them what they can recall about your company, your exhibit etc. Media coverage generated. Keep a log of all press cuttings, including local and national press, trade press, official show preview and review, show daily newspaper. Use a press-monitoring agency if necessary. Get a circulation figure from the organisers for the show preview and daily. Establish the area of page space you received in editorial and calculate the cost of an equivalent advertisement. Evaluate the content of the editorial achieves. To what extent did you succeed in getting your message across?

Other. – Some benefits cannot be measured scientifically but are important when considering overall exhibition effectiveness. Consider the role the event has played in generating customer good will, building team spirit within the organisation etc.

Evaluate your performance – Having measured results, you need to pinpoint and analyse the causes of success or failure, so you can make improvements next time around. If targets were not met, to what extent was it caused by the organisers (quality/quantity of visitors, organisational problems) or by your own efforts? Consider all areas of your participation, from planning and budgeting, to stand design, promotion and staff performance.

Debrief the exhibition team – What did the team think of your performance? Hold a debriefing session while the event is still fresh in everyone’s mind.

Prepare a post-show report – Write up your conclusions and recommendations in the form of post-show report. Include samples of promotions undertaken and photographs of the stand. It will give you a huge head start next time around; and will provide a solid foundation on which your successor can build, should you move on!

Robert McAnderson, General Manager, gained his experience in Marketing, Sales and Senior Management with 3M, Canon, Expertise Events and Intercept Information Solutions.

He is highly regarded in the area of Sales Management having held the prestigious title of Australian Sales Manager of the Year.


                            LASERS AND ORAL TISSUES : IN A NUT SHELL

The past decade has seen various innovative researches that made an impact or revolutionized the standard of dental care. The clinical applications of lasers in dental practice and the parallel emergence of organizations to support laser dentistry with an international focus. Once regarded as a complex technology with limited uses in clinical dentistry. There is growing awareness of the usefulness of lasers in the armamentarium of the modern dental practice, where they can be used as an adjunct or alternative to traditional approaches.

 All the Successful dentists have a true passion for their profession. Staying current on the means and methods to practice, properly evaluating technology and embracing changes to improve their practice, will nourish that passion. However, with the recent advances and developments of wide range of laser wavelengths and different delivery systems, researchers suggest that lasers could be applied for the dental treatments including periodontal, restorative and surgical treatments.



A devise that emits an intense coherent directional beam of radiant energy by stimulated electronic or molecular transitions to lower energy level.


Einstein’s atomic theories on controlled radiation can be credited as the foundation for lasers technology in 1917.Nearly 40 yearly, American physicist Townes first amplified microwave frequencies by the stimulated emission process and the acronym MASER – microwave amplification by stimulated emission of radiation came into use.

In 1958, Schawlow AND Townes extended the maser principle to the optical portion of electromagnetic field, hence the name laser. In 1960, the first working laser, a pulsed ruby instrument, was built by Maiman of Hughes research laboratories, of 0.694mm and in 1961 second laser neodymium laser by SNITZER.

Goldman in 1962 established the first laser in medical laboratory at university of Cincinnati, as he is recognized as the first physician to use laser technology initially working with the ruby laser.L’esperence was the first to use argon laser in 1988 in ophthalmology.In 1972, string and jako, carbondioxide laser in otolaryngology.Keifhabes et al in 1977 first to use neodymium, yitrium – aluminum- garnet.


Historically, the first lasers to be marketed for intraoral use generally were corbondioxide lasers with otolaryngology clearances authorized by the FDA.During 1970s and 1980s, intraoral use of co2 lasers was confined to specialists, such as surgeons, oral surgeons and some periodontitis. It was not until 1990 that the field of laser dentistry began in earnest in USA, atleast in clinical terms. In may 1990,the FDA cleared for intra oral soft tissue surgery a pulsed nd: laser developed by Myer’s and Myer’s, recognized as the first laser designed specifically for general dentistry.

                                    USES OF LASERS IN PERIODONTICS

Lasers used for periodontal therapy

Laser type                                           wave length

Argon                                                    488-515

Co2                                                          10,600

Nd:yag                                                  1064

Diode                                                    800-980

Er:yag                                                         294

Xeci exemer                                           308



–          Soft tissue recontouring

–          Sulcular debridement

–          Hemastasis

–           Soft tissue ablation, removal of large masses of tissue

–           Bactericidal effects in pockets

–           Curettage

–          Deepitheliazation

–          Fine soft tissue ablation

–          Incision

–          Soft tissue anesthesia

–          Root desensitization

–          Second stage implant surgery

–          Osseous surgery

–          Excision biopsies

–          Soft tissue welding

–          Frenectomy

–          Apthous ulcer treatment.


       It is one of the first lasers to be used in treatment of vascular lesions. It was invented in 1964 and was used initially to treat retinal detachment. Treatment of skin lesions gained popularity  during the 1970’s .

              The laser is delivered through a fiber optic cable to a hand piece. The spot size normally used is 0.1cms and the beam is defocused, prior to treatment, LA must be used, generally avoiding vasoconstrictors to allow the dilation of the target vessels. When commencing treatment, the lesion is stabilized by an assistant and the affected area is slowly but continuously ablated using either a to and fro painting motion or a circular technique, starting in the center of lesion and working gradually outward.  Superficial vessels may be simply traced.

             The end point for the treatment of mucosal or submucosal lesions is collapse of the lesion with whitening of the surface mucosa. Deep venous cakes of the lip may more effectively treated by the glass slide technique .In this technique the clear glass slide is pressed on to the venous lake in order to flatten lesion and bring its deeper aspects closer to the surface.


It was developed in 1964 by patel and operated by bell laboratories.

            With the co2 laser, the rapid rise in intracellular tempatature and pressure leads to cellular rupture as well as release of vapour and cellular debris termed laser plumes. The debris arising from the site of impact, the char is carbonized tissue by the laser beam. Char formation occurs more rapidly during the continuous wave mode than wiyh pulsed or gated modes. If the char is allowed to accumulate irradiation is attempted through it. There will be a rapid jump in temperature to 1500­o  to 2000o c and the irradiated site will begin to condense to organ glow, causing extensive thermal damage Therefore proper use of the laser requires removal of the accumulated char layer during surgery to reestablish a moist surgery for absorption of laser energy.

            The co2 laser wavelength is readily absorbed by water .As soft tissue is 75% to 90% water, about 98% of the energy is converted to heat and absorbed at tissue surface with very little scatter or penetration. Thus only narrow zone of coagulation necrosis may surround the vaporization of co2 laser incision.  Because with this co2 laser , no contact is made with the tissue ,no tactile feedback occurs, but the tissue ablation can be precise with careful technique.

The depth of laser incision is proportion to the power setting and the duration of exposure.co2 laser surgery of oral soft tissues is generally performed with a power setting of 5-15 watts, in either a pulsed or continuous mode. The higher energy levels are required to vapourize and remove tissue, while the lower energy levels are used for homeostasis and photocoagulation.


Production of sterile surgical field, bacteriocidal, vermicidal.
Minimal cicatrix formation and wound contraction.
Access to difficult to reach anatomic sites by reflection or through waveguides.
Ability to coagulate, vaporize or incise tissue.
Good homeostasis.
Reduced local tissue trauma and oedema.
Precise delivery of energy to diseased tissue.
Reduced pain by induced neural anesthesia as a function of neuron sealing and decreased pain mediator release.
Minimized tumor cell dispersion by lymphatic sealing.
Little chance for mechanical trauma.
Little or no need for sutures.
Decreased scarring.




Specialized didactic and clinically oriented instruction required for laser use by the surgeon and ancillary assistants.
Hazards to patient ,operating and assistant team of anesthesia personal from misdirected and inadervant laser radiation
Exposure of laser equipments.
Specialized wiring and plumbing connections.
Maintenance requirements.
Fire hazard as related to anesthesia risk.
Electrical hazard of laser equipment.

Nd :YAG laser :

            In 1989 ,myer’s et al published the first article on the pulsed Nd : YAG laser in periodontal surgery. The 0.064nm Nd:YAG laser can be usedin contact and non contact nodes for cutting and ablating tissues. A distinct advantage of this laser is that the fibrooptic tip ,when cleaned or prepared properly accumulates a coating of carbonized tissues at the tip.This tip highly absorbs the laser energy and maximizes the transfer of light energy into thermal energy ,which minimizes the tissue penetration .When used in a contact mode ,the pulsed Nd:YAG laser does not penetrate the tissues to any degree greater than the co2 laser.

            The depth of penetration is estimated to be 2+\- 1mm in soft tissues.A recent study concluded that thermal damage may occur to the condensing bone when YG:NAG laser is used at appropriate energy levels during soft tissue ablation.A significant increase in the intrapulpul thermal damage has also been reported when the devise was used to remove the smear layer from roots in the vitro.It is highly absorbed by pigmented tissues and is about 10000 times more absorbed water than an argon laser. The free running pulse mode allows the clinician to treat thin or fragile tissue with a reduction in heat build up in surrounding area.

            It has a long cooling time, commonly used for cutting and coagulation of dental tissues, but there is little interaction with sound tooth structure , allowing tissue surgery adjacent to the tooth to be safe and precise.

            The fiber usually is bare ended, In contact with tissue. During use the fiber end needs to be cleaved and cleaned otherwise the laser light rapidly looses its effectiveness. When used in contact, defocused mode, this wavelength can penetrate several mm into soft tissue, which can be used advantageously for delivering the laser energy to the inner surface, for e.g. ulcerated lesion.


            The diode laser is a relatively new addition to the periodontal armentarium. When used in the contact mode, the continuous wave diode laser at low power is a useful instrument for excising tissues and for reducing bacteria in periodontal pockets. Wavelength used is 819 nm. The power out put for dental use is generally around 2 to 10 watts can be either pulsed or continuous mode. The diode laser has been shown to have similar tissue effects as the ND: YAG laser in comparable studies with less thermal effects with the deeper tissues.


            Has a active medium of a solid crystal of yetrium – scandium – gathium – garnet that is doped with yetrium and chromium.Boundary of near infrared and mid infrared invisible and nonionising portion of the spectrum.

            The primary emphasis of utilizing lasers only on soft tissue was changed in 1997 with FDA safety clearance for the use of ertrium.It has got a wavelength of 2940 nm which is ideal for absorption by hydroxyapatite and water making it more efficient in ablating enamel and dentin than any previously introduced laser. This wavelength corresponds to the absorbtion coefficient of water ,causing water to evoparate into steam in the tissues being irradiated and resulting in a micro explosion of hard tissue.This process of ablation allows very little heat generation into underlying tissues and minimal elevation of the pulpal temperature.It absorbs 15000 times more water than ND:YAG laser.The tissue destruction caused by Er:YAG laser & probably not related to thermal effects or with other types of lasers,but to the microexplosions associated with the water evaporates with in the cementum andother dental hard tissues.

            The Er:YAG laser utilizes a fiber optic delivery system with an accompanying helium – neon laser as an aiming beam, since the wavelength is invisible.It is essential  to use a spray to wet the surface during laser radiation to achieve maximum efficiency of tissue removal with minimum heat generation. The surface is left with an acid – etched appearance microscopically which enhances the bond strength when used on enamel for cavity preparation.


THE continuous or pulsed – laser has become an excellent modality for the treatment of superficial vascular lesions because of its excellent selective absorbtion by the HB with little or no effect on surrounding tissues.The dye laser ,especially pulsed dye has found usefulness in the treatment of children in whom postoperative scarring is minimal.


            No pathologic changes in the tissue layers adjacent to the directed areas were found after the ablation of dental tissue with 193 nm.This laser by Frentfen et el in 1989.


            Laser technology has an adjunctive role in the field of periodontal surgery.

1) Gingival hyperplasia: The co2 lasers (10600nm) are the definite choice for gingivectomy procedure because of its speed .The laser has demonstrated practical applications in patients who exhibit gingival hyperplasia associated with a systemic haemorrhagic disorder and classic periodontitis concurrent with similar coagulopathies. The hyperplasia was removed with the co2 laser with blood loss of less than 200 ml,despite a platelet count that was never more than 15000.Even ND:YAG is also used here(1064nm)both with infrared range; they must be combined with other types of visible lasers for the beam to be seen and aimed. But the healing is delayed when compared with healing of the conventional scalpel gingivectomy. Indicated power setting ranged from 4 – 10 watts depending upon the thickness of the tissue and the beam is used in both focused and defocused mode. To precisely counter the gingival margin, the beam is used away from the gingival margin in focused or defocused mode to simply ablate or vaporize the excessive tissue. (Ab et al 1998).Even the diode laser is used for gingivectomy.

2) Gingivoplasty: co2 lasers are the choice for this procedure. There are extremely past procedures, the laser is used in focused or in defocused mode with indicating power settings from 2-5 watts depending upon the size of the lesion.

Even ND: YAG laser has the capacity to operate at high penetration rates. A gingivectomy and gingivoplasty was performed on very delicate sulcular epithelium and by changing the pulse rate and power setting a frenectomy was performed on fiber tissue. The recontouring and removal of gingival tissue can be easily accomplished with the argon laser. The laser can be used as the primary surgical instrument to remove excessive gingival tissue and with it will provide hemostasis and weed the wound under LA. Like deepithelialization and retraction procedures here is a variety of technique to accomplish the desired tissue removal.

While all of the variations are effective, the clinician must develop a technique ,he or she is comfortable with a recommended technique to use 300 µm fibers in contact at 1.0 to 1.8 w continuous wave with a water spray.This will create power densities of 1400 – 2600 w\cm2 at the fiber tip and tissue temperature of 100 – 150o C. The power will need to be adjusted in this range based on the pigmented and fibrous characteristics of patients tissue. The goal is to accomplish effective tissue removal with minimal tissue damage to the surrounding tissues. The fiber is placed against the tissue and in a sweeping motion the tissue is either coagulated or is incised.

3) Frenectomy: There is no better use for co2 laser than for maxillary midline or lingual frenectomies .In maxillary frenectomy, the frenum is simply vapourized with the co2 laser. In lingual, the tip of the tongue is grasped, the tensionis placed and from the greatest concavity of the frenum moving posterior. Indicated power settings usually to 4- 5 watts in the slightly defocused mode (pick 1993).

            Argon laser is valuable tool in performing frenectomy procedures .The argon laser was largely effective in cutting fibrous tissue at higher energies. It is also beneficial for lingual frenectomy because of the haemostatic property .Laser contact scalpel is the instrument of choice with laser set at 1.0 to 2.25 W continuous wave delivery. The laser scalpel is placed on the frenular tissue which is excised. Water spray may be used. The tissue is removed with conventional standard incision design. Care should be taken not to damage the wartons duct. The frenum can literally be cut away, excellent homeostasis occurs.


            lasers can be used very effectively for this purpose.Power setting ranging from 3-6 W is indicated with beam moving from a focusing mode to defocused mode as necessary.To protect the underlying tooh,no7 wax spatula is kept in the sulcus.


            Lasers have proven to be very effective in reducing or completely eliminating the temperature sensitivity, especially that due to cold. The exact mechanism is still not known.

            It is said that in some ways ,they effectively seal the dentinal tubules.or co2 lasers, the beam is used in defocused mode and indicated low power setting 1-2 W .Some operators places a fluoride gel over the root surface first before lasing the tooth. The reported result which comes from numerous operators and institutions are impressive, possible mechanism include the narrowing or occlusion of dentinal tubules and nerve analgesia through depression of nerve transmission. Nd:YAG,GA-AR AND CO2 lasers are used.


            The co2 wave length is also used to remove the granulation tissue either to periodontal clean out or for degranulation of wound site present in certain furcation areas ,circumferential defects,intra bony defects and three wall defects,where stubborn tissue tags can persists. The laser can help either entirely to degranulation or partially degranulate these areas.CO2 lasers with hollow wave guides are recommended for this purpose .Since the tip can be easily directed to the site to be degranulated.The laser is used in focused or near focused mode and power setting adjusted from 1-2 W.


            co2 lasers work exceptionally well for uncovering implants – whether they be single or multiple fixtures. For this indication, the co2 lasers simply vaporizes the overlying tissues until the surgical healing cap is reached .This is accomplished with a defocused mode ,a circular motion and an indicated power setting of 3-6W.This can also be referred to as a “cookie cutter” approach. The opening can then be easily contoured and enlongated as needed.

When applicable, the laser eliminates the need for a flap and suturing and reduces the level of past operative discomfort that would normally be associated with this procedure .However conventional flap procedures may be performed in cases of which there is a need for apically positioning a flap or for uncovering implants within osseous structures. When regeneration material such as gore-tex, augmentation fiters, need to be recovered, the lasers is not recommended.


            laser induced analgesia is a phenomenon the rational of which is not well understood.Researchers have theorized that certain wavelengths of laser energy interfere with sodium pump mechanism,change cell membrane permeability,alter temporarily the endings of the sensory neurons and block the depolarization of c and a fibers of the nerves.Inthis area,the pulsed Nd:YAG laser has commanded most attention.


            The co2 laser is commonly used .This because of its excellent coagulation ability,flexible fibro optic delivery system,ease of use and precission.Even HO:YAG lasers also used.Diode lasers are also used rarely.Er:YAG laser is not often used of its limited coagulation abilities.

10) INSTRUMENT STERLIZATION:co2 lasers ,Nd:YAG and argon lasers could sterlize selected dental instruments.

11) HOLOGRAPHY:laser based holographic imaging application in dentistry have been investigated since the early 1970s.It can measure tooth mobility,tooth position.

12) BIOSTIMULATION:certain low level lasers may have biostimulation effects ranging from analgesia,pain relief,accelerated wound healing,fibroblat proliferation,bone formation,reduced gingival inflammation and oedema,reduced dentinal hypersensitivity and treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome.

13) LASERS IN IMPLANT DENTISTRY: before any laser surgery is attempted, the initial surgery and healing process should be evaluated. Arigidity fixated implant with no crestal bone loss and adequate zones of attached gingiva should be present. Soft tissue thickness of 1-3mm and no tenderness or discomfort under vertical or lateral forces is needed.

Once the implant is uncovered with the laser under minimal anesthesia, the rigidity can be verified and most important any discomfort with lateral or vertical forces can be expressed verbally because only the soft tissue overlying the implant is anesthesized .Soft tissue greater than 3 mm thick should be reduced with the laser to create an ideal pocket depth around the implant.If the bone defecs are encountered or the width of attached tissue is less than 3mm,full surgical reflectionis recommended.


            Root preparation using the pulsed Nd:YAG laser alone or in combination with manual curettage,was studied by cobb.This study involved topographic examination of root surfaces in a scanning microscopy and DNA probe sampling to access the effects of laser application in advanced periodontal pockets of microbial population as well.At energy levels of 3.0 W at 20pps,2.25W at 20pps with change in time of applicationfrom 1-3mnts with pre and post lasing manual curettage,The authers found changes in the topography of root surfaces with significant residium of plaque and calculus deposits in all specimen.            Moreover ,although there was a significant reduction of populations of putative microorganisms mainly consisting of A.actinomycetocomitans,Porphynomonas gingivalis,in the period immediately after lasing,then was a gradual repopulation of these species.Laser pocket thermolysis has taken to used to describe the control of pathogenic pocket flora by argon laser energy,in conjunction withscaling and rootplaning.The laser tips inserted into the pocket,extending to the base and moved around the tooth, circumferentially .The pathogens are carbonized as are the adherent plaque deposits and some of the adherent plaque deposit on the root surfaces as well. Root instrumentation follows to remove the material from the pocket which leaves a smooth root surfaces which is compatible with healing of the soft tissue inflammatory lesion.


Epstein in 1992 described the Nd:yag laser for curettage teeth as follows:

–          Use a 320 µm fiber , 1.5 – 2.0W,15-20pps.

–          Insert to pocket depth and irradiate,keeping fiber parallel to root.

–          Move fiber horizontally and vertically.

–          Stop when there is fresh blood.

–          LA is usually not needed.

            Gold and viraldi in 1994,attempted to look at the histology immediately after ND:YAGlaser curettage.he has described sharp margins with intact nuclei and conclude that the contact tip laser can remove sulcular epithelium without collateral damage.Their histology shows remarkable degree of cellular disruption in one figure extending through out most of the height and thickness of the tissue .This cellular tear drop shaped disruption is conceivably the result of deeply scattered and absorbed ND:YAG laser light . if it were solely from the surface heat one would expect a more radial nature to the distribution of the disruption.

            In 1995 henry and colleagues reported that the argon laser was able to selectively kill bacteria, with pigmented species being more sensitive.Mayer’s noted that indicated candidates for laser curettage are patients with periodontal pockets of 3 – 7mm.Application of laser energy for curettage is photo coagulation or vaporization of soft or fibrous tissue within the periodontal pocket subjacent to alveolar crest.           During this procedure the coagulated epithelium will be cleanly evident and need to be wiped out from the fiber tip with a sterile gauge.


            To deal with a vertical pocket  associated with a severe bone loss ,most surgeon using a laser would combine it with a traditional instrumentation.Usually the defect is debrided with conventional flap surgery,followed by laser de-epithilialization weekly for several weeks.After flap surgery defect is debrided and root planning is performed.The wound is next treated with a pulsed ND:YAG laser for closure of healing.The root surfaces and alveolar bone are treated with the laser set at 1.8W and 15 pulses per sec .The specific use of the laser is to provide for other properties recognized as advantages of laser energy. After initial debridement  and raising periodontal defect is de-epithilialized weekly for 10 weeks.The quantz fiber of the laser is placed apical to the periodontal ligament attachmentof the epithelium and gingival connective tissue is removed coronally.after lasing the defect is debrided and root planning is performed.


Classification by ossoff et al 1983; Meyer’s 1981.

A modification by fried 1986 is used as it focuses on mechanism of injury and can be applied to any anatomic site.

1) Direct laser effect:

a)      Burning to mucous membrane: while giving incision or while giving during any surgical procedure ignition can be caused. This is the frequent complication arising from direct laser effect, it can cause burns to mucous membrane, teeth. The burns are usually localized and minor, but may be more or less serious if continued laser bursts are applied prior to recognizing the problem. The recognizing of tooth injury may be delayed for several weeks often the injury. The usual cause is an improperly aligned laser beam. The injury can occur to the patient or to the operator.

b)      Corneal injury: since the cornea is 75% water, the absorptive index of the cornea is close to that of water.co2 laser radiation is selectively absorbed by cornea, mostly in the superficial layers. Corneal injury may occur either to the patient or to the operator and may result from a direct or reflected laser beam. Glass and plastic also absorb co2 laser radiation and act as effective protection.

c)      Ignition of cotton pledget or other flammable packing drapes: the kindling point of paper and fabric product is very low. If a laser beam strikes one of these products in a dry state, ignition is almost instantaneous.

d)      Burns to the operator: this injury is fairly frequent, usually occurring as burns to finger placed in the laser beam.

e)      Haemorrhage: the co2 laser will provide only limited haemostasis and is usually effective for only smaller vessels.

2) Indirect laser effect:

a)      Effects caused by laser beam striking a reflective surface: any of the complications listed above can be caused by the reflectoion of laser beam.

b)      Airway obstruction by charred tissue: even when an endotracheal tube is not used, excessive mucosal charring can build up and obstruct the airway.This charred tissue will also allow heat to build up since the charred tissue contains little moisture and don’t vaporize.

c)      Burns to mucosa and skin caused by heating instruments by laser .

3) Complication caused by equipment effects:

    Injury caused by improper wrapping of endotracheal tube. Improper wrapping of   

    endotracheal tubes with reflective tape can produce sharp edges. These will 

    cause injury to the mucosa, particularly on intubation and extubation. This tape  

    can also loosen, causing airway obstruction.

4) Complication caused by delayed effects:

  oedema: while oedema may occur during the operative procedure,it is more likely to occur in the post operative period. If the oedema is extensive and involves the airway obstruction can ensue. Less severe oedema, particularly in the posterior glottis or pharynx may produce dysphagia and aspirations. Oedema may also be caused by vigorous instrumentations.

5) Thermal injury: any laser produces heat in the tangent tissues with an ideal of instantaneous vaporization without effect on the contiguous tissues. Some of the heat is dissipated as steam in the plume and the remainder is absorbed by surrounding tissues. Ideally again the tissues immediately adjacent to the site of laser energy must both absorb the heat without an undue inflammatory response and conduct the heat away from the site of radiation and by vascular system.

6) Overlasing the surgical target: delivering laser energy to the too high a level for the planned reaction of tissues in the tangent area will produce a burn. Achar is produced during lasing that must be wiped away to prevent it being released.If a char is exposed to continuing laser enegy, temperatures measuring in the range of 4000oC are generated ,which will conduct normal tissues.

7) Reflected laser energy: Sliney wrote “the principal hazard to personnel in the vicinity of an operating laser results from specialized reflections. highly polished metallic surfaces and convex surfaces on instrument  and equipment have no place in a laser beams from the polished surfaces and concentration of beams by convex curvatures produce uncontrolled and damaging laser energy.

8) The surgical team: Carlson “if the surgeon and staff members interrupt the laser beam path, they suffer burns as result .these accidental encounters with the lasers are common place, especially when the surgeon is working with a new inexperienced assistant.

9) Explosive potential : materials with an explosive potential when exposed to an igniting heat, such as inhaling anesthetic agent  and topical anesthetic skin freeze spray preparation ,absolutely  should not be used in conjunction with laser surgery.

10) Surgical site: surgery is surgery no matter how elegantly done and what cutting instruments used. With laser there is possibility of augmentation of tissue responses and post operative pain, comparable that associated with surgery with a scalpel, especially if application of laser energy is not exact.


11) Hypertropic cutaneous fibrosis: following laser surgery through cutaneous tissues, hypeertrophic scaring is most frequent undesirable dermatologic side effect. The thermal energy of laser alters the contiguous tissues and sets stage for hypertropic scarring. The greater the depth of the necrosis of lasers greater alterations in the contiguous tissues.

12) Post operative discomfort: pain in related to thermal aspects of lasers on the contiguous tissues .The greater the penetration of laser energy, the greater the inflammatory response and more intense the hypoesthesia. Penetration of superficial fascia may permit herniation of adipose tissue., increased pain due to neurotic damage.

13) Infection: it is possible that the decreased vitality of the contiguous tissues,owing to the thermal damage, may provide a regional site for opportunistic microorganism to flourish if there as been contamination.


The area of the new technology may produce unfounded apprehensions and claims of complication in relation to laser surgery. There is no scientific basis for believing lasers could be a hazard to a foetus. The mis understanding probably is an outgrowth of confusion between laser radiation and ionizing radiation.


The laser safety is an issue limited not only to the performances of treatment with dental operators but one that also encomposes the interrelationship among the health care providers,educational institutes ,government (miserdino 1992).

1) Personnel Protective equipment : while using lasers one must wear adequate eye protection,including the patient.This can be provided by either safety goggles or screening devises, however the means selected must be designed specifically for use with the particular wavelength of laser radiation.

While selecting appropriate protective eye wear following should be considered:

a)      Wavelength of laser emission

b)      Maximum permissible exposure limits.

c)      Degradation of absorbing media or filter.

d)      Optical density of eye wear

e)      Radiant exposure limits.

f)        Need for corrective lenses.

g)      Multiple wavelength requirements

h)      Restriction of peripheral vision

i)        Comfort and fit.

2) Control of airborn contaminants : the laser plume,which is the smoke or vapor emitted from the site of surgery during exposure to laser energy is special concernThe plumeshould be regarded as potentially hazardous both in terms of  particulate matter and infectivity.Although it is highly unlikely that viable tumor cells occurs in laser has been reported that intact viral DNA can be liberated into the the air with the.vapor created during co2 laser treatment of the also has harmful effects on respiratory system.

            Airborn contaminants can be controlled by ventilation,evacuation or other methods of respiratory protection.airborn contaminants should be removed as near as possible from the point or origin by evacuation and ventilation to the outside if possible or by recirculationg air filtration systems.adequate suction in the cut surgical field must be maintained at all timesespecially when trating pathologic conditions that are suspected of being viral in origin to limit the possibility of spreading that virus via the laser plume.accordingly,the evacuation system should be able to remove particle as small as 0.3µm with atleast an 80% efficiency.surgical staff should wear mask to remove the particles .Eye wear ,face shield and cps or growns should be worn to protect the personnel from splatter and laser light.

3) Beam alignment : the beam alignment should be checked before any surgical procedure by using a moistened tongue depressor and firing the laser to prevent combustion.

4) Reflected energy : polished instruments should not be used because of the potential for reflected lasers energy to cause damage only anodiozed ones should be used.

5) Fire protection : the use of fire is always concern when laser is used .when using laser non combustable materials should be used.All combustable materials must e kept in closed cabinets and any combustion fluids that is used in surgical preparation must be dried before surgery.


6) Anesthesia: when laser is used for nasotrachial surgery,moist pack must be used to protect the tube from accident al laser damage.because any exposure of anesthetic agent to the laser beam can cause combustion in biomaterial system .

7) Tissue damage : when laser is used for tissue incisions ,the power density and the time used by the laser should be rwespected.It can cause tissue damage and it can be prevented by preventing carbon arcing,the tissue should be regularly wiped clean of co2.

8) Tissue protection: the tissues of oral cavity should always be protected from over exposure of laser energy though by unintension, which may lead to bone necrosis.


The space age has arrived. No longer are lasers something that are only used in movies or opening ceremonies of mega events.incresingly ,lasers are finding a niche in many aspects of life and this includes dentistry. In addition, its bactericidal effect with elimination of lipopolysaccharide, ability to remove bacterial plaque and calculus, irradiation effect limited to an ultra-thin layer of tissue, faster bone and softtissue repair, make it a promising tool for periodontal treatment including scaling and root surface debridement. Used in conjunction with or as a replacement for traditional methods, it is expected that specific laser technologies will become an essential component of contemporary dental practice over the next decade.


1.Dr.Arati c koregol,Reader,Department of periodontics,pmnm dental college,Bagalkot.

2.Dr.raghavendra M

3.Dr.Nagaraj kalburgi

4.Dr.Bhaghyashree vanaki

Hollow Drill

Hollow drill bit is more suited to portable tool hole processing tool. However, hollow drill bit manufacturing process more complicated, and can not be processed blind hole, and therefore the use of metal cutting are not common, usually only in the processing of some large diameter or precious metal workpiece through-hole drilling equipment, power is limited or when the use of .

Here’s hollow design of the cutting bit to make a brief analysis of the impact.

A front-line impact of change on the drill bit cutting

Anterior horn of the cutting force under the influence of change in angle will affect the extent of chip deformation of the material, thereby cutting force change. Larger chip deformation, cutting force greater; chip deformation smaller, the smaller the cutting force. The current angle is 0 ° ~ 15 ° within the scope changes, the changes in cutting force correction factor ranging from 1.18 to 1. Anterior horn of the impact of increased durability drill bit anterior horn, the tip will reduce the intensity and volume of cooling the same time, the situation will affect the tip force. The current angle is positive when the tip under tensile stress; the current angle is negative, tip compressive stress. Such as the choice of anterior horn is too large, although the increase drill sharpness, reducing the cutting forces, but the tip tensile stress suffered by a larger tip strength decreased, easy to break. A number of bits in the cutting trials were too large due to anterior horn damage. However, due to be processed materials, high hardness and strength, combined with a portable drilling rig machine spindle and a lower rigidity, such as pre-selected angle is too small, the increase of cutting forces during drilling spindle will vibrate, processing, apparent surface vibration pattern, drill durability will be reduced.

2 posterior horn of the impact of change on the drill bit cutting

 Increased posterior horn can be reduced and the cutting flank friction between materials, reducing the strain on the machined surface. However, if the posterior horn is too large, it will reduce the edge strength and heat dissipation. A direct impact on the size of the posterior horn drill durability. In the drilling process, the drill wear in the form of the main phase transition mechanical abrasions and wear. Consider mechanical abrasion wear and tear, when the cutting life is constant, the greater the posterior horn, cutting time can be longer; consider the phase-change wear and tear, posterior horn larger drill bit will reduce the cooling capacity. Bit worn, with the gradual flank wear band widening, cutting power gradually increased, the friction heat generated will gradually increase, so that drill bit temperature, when the temperature rises to drill phase transition temperature, the drill will occur rapid wear and tear.

3 bit design of the grinding process of

Hollow drill small amount of processing volume is small, so the design should take into account bit processing technology issues, as far as possible commonly used machining equipment and tools used to achieve machining and grinding. Chip flow through the rake face, so the shape of the rake face a direct impact on the performance chip shape and chip removal. Chip in the outflow of the process of being the rake face extrusion and friction, and further deformation. Chip the greatest extent of the underlying metal deformation and slippage along the rake face, so that the bottom length of the chip is longer, to form a variety of curling shapes. Using hollow drill hole, we hope ribbon cuttings or debris into the debris in order to facilitate chip removal. To facilitate the processing and grinding, the rake face must be designed as a flat, and do not open chip-breaker. The rake face in use does not require re-grinding. Flank is the most likely to re-grinding the hollow drill bit face, but also the fastest surface wear and tear, so hollow drill grinding is grinding flank to achieve. Deputy Vice-flank divided into internal and external vice flank flank. Severity grinding point of view, re-grinding inside and outside is not easy to achieve, Vice flank, so Vice-flank grinding should be designed to not re-form. Based on the above analysis, the hollow drill bit blade designed for the form shown in Figure 1. Processing of Practice has proved that fully meet the design re-use requirements and tool grinding requirements.

4 cutting fluid used and the impact of drill cutting

 The main characteristics of the hollow drill holes within the core working hours will not be cut, so hollow drill twist drill cutting significantly reduced compared with the required drilling and cutting power in less heat generated. High-speed steel hollow drill hole, because of processing zones of temperature on the hardness of a great impact drill, so drilling process must be used coolant temperature. We started using an external spray cooling method, but drill the horizontal axis station processing, cooling fluid is not easy to enter the blade part of the drill bit, coolant consumption of a larger cooling effect is not ideal. The re-engineering to change the drill spindle structure, the external spray cooling an internal spray cooling, cooling fluid from the hollow core drill bits were added, so that coolant can smoothly reach the drill bit cutting section, thereby significantly reducing the cooling fluid consumption, improved cooling effect.

5 hollow drill bit to use effects

Well-designed hollow drill bit should also meet the requirements in the following aspects: ease of manufacturing, to adopt common tools and common tooling; easy re-sharpening can be carried out using common grinding wheel grinding machine; high production efficiency, long service life; low price. Basically, we developed the hollow drill bit to achieve the above requirements. In actual use, the drill durability is stable up to 50 minutes, diameter tolerance, surface roughness, Deng Jun reached the design requirements. Because only re-grinding flank, posterior horn bit easier to control, in the ordinary wheel machine grinding can be easily implemented.

I am China Chemicals Products writer, reports some information about t12 fluorescent tube , cloud light fixture.

Churchill – Right or Wrong ? an Analysis

“We are shaping the world faster than we can change ourselves, and we are applying to the present the habits of the past.” (W. Churchill)

To warrant a citation as one of the most influential or the most influential man in our century, entails a convincing description of a long term devotion and impact on the direction of society and history. This author submits that in the 20th century the intractable flow of events has been towards the liberation of people, both in spiritual and material terms, and that the defining principles of some type of Liberal Democracy now hold true in many regions of the globe – many more than at the start of the century. Let us not underestimate this fact. For the first time in human history, more people have control over their own lives as a % of the population than ever before. It is too be expected that this shall continue, but of course such a trend is not certain.

There are people enough who would like to derange the liberation of the mass, and pass us back to the days of centralised or oligarchic control. However in toto there is no intellectual or economic challenger to the Liberal Democratic model at this time. One of the great new situations and driving forces of our world today is international economic interdependence. Further world-wide integration is unstoppable. There will be fits, regressions, complaining and pauses, questions, arguments, harangues, and resolutions, but always over time a forward movement towards what may be termed unshackled and fair trade and cross border integration will proceed. What needs to be addressed is how can we fairly develop the markets and the economic strength of less developed nations whilst still maintaining the economic growth and market access of more developed nations. The balancing act will be marvellous to behold. Adam Smith infused with both Galbraith and Greenpeace.

In this regard and given that the values and concepts of Liberal – Democratic society are subtle and complex, we need then to go back and ask ourselves, “How did we get here and why.” Thus the perspective of history is necessary. If we look at how this century evolved it can be determined that very few leaders have had such a imposing and sincere belief in Liberal Democracy and the accumulated spoils produced by such a society: freedom, self determination, security and a healthy standard of life, as did Churchill. He was not a corrupt politician interested in the pursuit of power for its own sake, but a statesman interested in power for its intelligent application to better the lot of the common citizen.

The program that Churchill followed in his life, and I speak here of his Liberal-Democratic program, was, with the exception of 1 occurrence (the independence of India, which will be discussed later), remarkably consistent with the theme of expanding Liberal Democratic principles. This is due in large part to his upbringing in the Liberal Aristocracy of the British Empire; due in part to his political father’s Liberal ideals and his American mother’s robust (and extremely adulterous) New World energy; and due in part to his experiences across the world as a young man, where he witnessed the power and relative success of the Liberalised (though not really democratic) British Empire, in comparison with other orders that lacked the discipline to generate and project wealth and power. As a prophet of Liberal Democracy, there could have been no better trained or indoctrinated messiah than Churchill. The man whose family history had been formed around the development of British Parliamentary, and Liberal Orthodox supremacy.

Again as with other outstanding humans he still achieved much more, than his contemporaries; many of whom were as intelligent, dedicated and immersed in the achievement of moral and political prestige as Churchill. This is where then Churchill’s story becomes interesting. What set him apart from the others ? Chance, money, dumb luck, patronage ? In human destiny all of these play a role. But to climb a pinnacle these are not enough. I would submit that Churchill provides illumination and support to many of Bennis’ leadership notions. Or how else could he have scaled the heights ? He had definite views on how a society should be structured and shaped. The love of a tempered democracy, the creation of a system to ensure proper leadership and guidance, the development of systems to allow prosperity, peace and support, occupied the mind of this man throughout his whole life. Churchill was obsessed with improving the lot of mankind and consumed by the proper use of power and leadership. And like Bennis he believed in a set of management and leadership principles that propelled him to greatness.

For those who write, think and practice true leadership, Churchill possessed radical views. Not of the immoderate, intolerable type. But those of classical, orthodox, Liberalism. Churchill believed in the need for the State to take an active part, both by legislation and finance to ensure that minimum standards of life, labour and social well-being for all citizens were maintained in an atmosphere conducive to fair trade and entrepreneurialism. Among the areas where Churchill during his varied career, took an active part were; prison reform, unemployment insurance, state-aided pensions for widows and orphans, permanent arbitration for labour disputes, state assistance for the unemployed, shorter hours of work, improved retail shop conditions, a National Health Service, wider access to education, taxation of excess profits and employee profit-sharing. Quite a list from a man who was supposedly one dimensional – the World War II embodiment of victorious unconquerable Britannia.

Other great men and women could be analysed and presented. But Churchill, one of the most complex, energetic and effective of history’s leaders, stands as an unparalleled example of leading and dealing with crisis, while defending, developing or discerning the limitations, values and concepts of political leadership and importantly freedom and democracy. He was unique. His style, mode of governance, deeply rooted and strongly held system of beliefs, and importantly his gaping weaknesses, should serve as a serious model upon which to reconstruct the training and choosing of our political leaders and governmental workers. It is not a perfect model. But certainly it is better than the ad-hoc, clandestine, shaded political leadership system we have today. Let’s then take a cursory look at Churchill’s skills according to the framework laid out in the last chapter. A fuller explanation of his skills will follow in Chapter Four when we discuss his actions during World War Two.

In reading any volume about Churchill’s life the most blinding aspect in understanding his success, is the quality, depth and strength of his character. Many other men would long have given up, or perished in their chosen professions, if they had been subject to the same trials as Churchill. In general from studying his life I can safely state that he never took the easy route. He was certainly never offered the easy spoils. Yet he never bowed his knee to opinion polls, party whips, or popular expressions that ran contrary to his own judgement and sense of purpose. In comparing Churchill with other great’s of this century there is no one that had to endure the opprobrium, distrust or number of setbacks as did Churchill. Even the witch hunt instigated against William Clinton, is pretty mild stuff compared with what the press had to say about Churchill during the first half of this century. I am always amazed that Churchill was able not only to survive through it all, but survive with a smile.

This is not to romanticise his or anyone else’s macho strength and egotism. Both in large doses are negative. However, without strength of character change is impossible, adversity cannot be overcome and good never triumphs over evil. In the da
wning age of ‘Principle Parties’ as replacements for the outmoded ‘Political Parties’ trained individuals, relishing and brandishing these 3 traits will be needed to cut through the Gordian knot of the insoluble political drift we have today. We must remember the tenets of evolution and that change is not always progressive or better. To advance the human species needs change and conflicting ideas. These are necessary — not lobby groups, supine presidents and empty suits.

Upon the scarred field of politics Churchill stressed strength and magnanimity as the cornerstones of his behaviour. If impatience was his great weakness than offering magnanimity to the defeated – whether a local political opponent or Germany after World War II – casted Churchill as a strong but gallant knight and a man raised above the normal dash and din of political conflict. He fought all battles with limitless reserve and strategy. He offered friend and foe alike illimitable goodwill and respect after the conflict. His ideals imbued with history and coupled with a vision of where his country should be in the world were marked by a sense of fair play. Principles and not parties dictated his actions. For these reasons he is a man to be honoured and acclaimed as a defendant of democratic right and privilege.

To be effective statesmanship must lay on established principles and constraints rather than on emotive impulses and frayed passions. We should not forget that nations have no permanent friends, only semi-permanent interests, a covenant that often offends popular sympathy and belief. For it is these realism’s, that politics is a game of shifting fortunes, relationships and situations, that disgusts the great majority in democratic lands. Politics is like making love– natural, necessary and enjoyable– only if it is done properly. What is discernible about Churchill is his hard-headed realism and practicality in accepting such truths. Consequently he looked ahead a great deal more carefully and cautiously than many of his contemporary observers thought mutating viewpoints and re-evaluating some of his opinions. Of course some cried that he was too fluid and perhaps could not be trusted and other criticasters weary of Churchill’s rhetoric, would delight in emphasising that Churchill was a product of the late 19th century immutable and intractable. Thus from both sides – conservatives and liberals – Churchill received a drubbing, regardless of the integrity of his actions.

Churchill’s bellicosity caused much of the drubbing. One should consider the weight and purity of Churchill’s virtue and charity to all he contacted – friend or foe – even though he received the most acidic and heavily concentrated attacks of any politician in any era. Critics never tired of chopping at the tree of Churchill’s accomplishments. It began when he crossed the floor in 1904 to join the Liberals. It received a great accretion in strength during the winter of 1913-4 when Churchill was the subject of a broad protest by pacifists, economists, and social reformers who thought that as First Lord of the Admiralty he was too profligate and was promoting the arms race. At the root of the discontent and many to follow, was the fact that Churchill was not a good party man. As such the image of the war mongering pirateer was born and created by an aspersive socialist press. Churchill was not a war monger, “his thought has always been, between the wars, upon the means of making peace among the peoples.” For his critics such distractions were carefully ignored. It was during 1913-14 that the apparati to hang Churchill politically was established and raised for action.

What is inestimable is the fortitude and resilience of mind and body to withstand such brutal, crabby treatment that Churchill received at the hands of malcontents and frustrated plotters. His closest friends recognised clearly the political courage of Churchill. On November 11 1922, T.E. Lawrence (Lawrence of Arabia), wrote to a friend; “The man is as brave as six, as good-humoured, shrewd, self-confident and considerate as a statesman can be and several times I’ve seen him chuck the statesmanship course and do the honest thing instead.”

The honest thing included enacting proper change. When we view the broad balance of Churchill’s career and factor in the jealousy inherent in the political field and the degree of envy held by many of Churchill’s excessive successes we observe that many of his greatest contributions to the establishment of public welfare and governmental responsibility were initiatives driven from within, without concern to reputation, personal circumstance or fortune. Most were decidedly modern and far sighted. This is quite clear in his advancement of ‘Tory Democracy’ – economic growth with general support for the masses. Tory Democracy is another prescription for centrist governance. Often times this led him to advocate the dismemberment of party politics and the establishment of a broad nationally based governance: “Parliamentary debate has become largely meaningless. All the time the two great party machines are grinding up against each other with the utmost energy, dividing every village, every street, every town and city into busy party camps. Each party argues that it is the fault of the other. What is certain is that to prolong the process indefinitely is the loss of all…Once it can be seen that a great new situation or great new issues lie before us, an appeal should be made to the people to create some governing force which can deal with our affairs in the name and in the interest of the large majority of the nation.”

Part of Churchill’s trajectory to statesmanship can be seen in the light of time. First accumulate a reputation for outspoken principled action. Second, accumulate power via alliances, learning and public positioning. Then state a vision resplendent with clear principles, meanings and images while solving local problems. Lastly accede to great affairs and the devising of solutions in a national and international context. This trajectory needs to be buttressed by character, skills (verbal and technical), vision and power accumulation and recognition. To have these skills imbedded in action is not enough. A person must also have as a bedrock a clear and clean sense of duty and morality.

Importantly Churchill was clean. Adultery, conspiracy, or treachery were never a part of Churchill’s character. Loyalty, aggression and impulsiveness were the main exciting agents in Churchill’s life. His extreme ambition bordering at times on foolhardiness but always driven by an abnormal energy galvanised all around him. Churchill was always a contrarian thinker, and a statesman of the highest order, but he was not a Machiavellian posturer. His success rested on energy, innovation and positive thinking, all in a consistent framework employed in over 50 years of statesmanship.

Churchill personified the well instructed and knowledgeable Leader. He was a self-developed man. As a youth he immersed himself in governing, leadership and policy. He never ceased learning and improving all of his life. He spent a great deal of time learning skills from his contemporaries such as Lloyd George, Lord Fisher, Herbert Asquith, F.E. Smith, and Max Beaverbrook amongst many others. On a political level this education led to a vision not only of strong morality but of rationality. In very few instances did Churchill compromise his personal code of morality for the sake of political gain. In this he was exemplary. But he was also a realist. He was adept at combining power and ethics in a compelling package. Very few understood the effective use of political leverage better than Churchill.

Compare Churchill’s self-education program with the political elite today. How many are steeped in history, philosophy, and the rigours and tribulations of historical notables ? What percent of our esteemed polit
ical masters exhibit such a rounded appreciation of the conditions and matters that shaped and will continue to shape the human story ? As Churchill sourly commented to then Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin in 1928 concerning the ease with which World War One could have been avoided: “Think of these people, decent, educated, the story of the past laid out before them. What to avoid, what to do etc. Patriotic, loyal, clean — trying their utmost. What a ghastly muddle they made of it ! Unteachable from infancy to tomb — there is the first & main characteristic of mankind.”

In looking at his life nothing can sum up the traits and skills of Churchill in short pleasing verbiage. He was patently too many people, a definite renaissance man, engaging in politics, writing, reporting, painting, farming, hunting, polo playing, warring and investing. Besides a massive intellect and memory Churchill possessed a spirit spurred with the whips of energy. It was unrelenting. His was the creed of action and contempt for delay. Mission was founded and achieved by exploring, questioning, trying, failing and trying again. During the 1930’s when the Stanley Baldwin and Ramsay Macdonald governments neglected the build-up of British war making strength and sought the treacherous path of appeasement to satiate the Nazi beast, Churchill who had long criticised the insipidity of such a program exclaimed in 1936 the memorable words about Baldwin’s government revealing his contempt for hiding inactivity in political closets; “The government simply cannot make up their mind, or they cannot get the Prime Minister to make up his mind. So they go in strange paradox, decided only to be undecided, resolved to be irresolute, adamant for drift, solid for fluidity, all powerful to be impotent.”

Brilliant diction summing up the most hated of Churchill’s dislikes – inaction. But we have still to reach that quality in Churchill, which warrants us in calling him great. For a man may be gifted far above the ordinary, without earning the emblem of true greatness. Churchill had brilliant gifts. He was, in addition, driven by a limitless, borderless, shifting, resolute ambition. Without such magnificent ambition, men never have, and never will accede to the summit of power, prestige and greatness. “Fame is the spur that the clear spirit doth raise (that last infirmity of noble mind), To scorn delights, and live laborious days.”

But unseemly ambition is insufficient to earn the appellation of great. It has to be elevated by noble principles (‘that last infirmity of noble mind’), to allow a man to rise above the supine mass. Flaming pertinacity is dangerous without the fibre of moral strength. Credibility rests on the broad shoulders of honesty and reliability. No Leader can shrug off those characteristics of success. Genius and energy do not necessarily shape the epiphanies of leadership. They have to combined in harmony and strength with the skills and qualities that we discussed in the last chapter, and which illuminate true leadership.

But character, skill and morality are not enough for leaders. Intelligence is necessary. It does us no good having a clutch of well intentioned clods fouling up the process. Intelligence can only really be measured by verbal capacity and skill. IQ measures and tests are inaccurate. Churchill owned the English language and he owned the skill of persuasion. As such he commanded the heights of leadership. He could communicate the moment, the mission, and the energy. Churchill was one of the few politicians in our century that had a beautiful, lucid communication and vocabulary. Emboldening this was his common sense, technical skill and creativity. Above all the dynamism of his verbal adroitness lied in the desire for action and not drift.

A baser form of intelligence is what can be termed ‘Political Antennae’. In most political circles this skill is usually too overdeveloped. In the case of Churchill it was surprisingly weak and poorly unused. Churchill’s rhetoric was maybe too developed and at times not flexible enough for his audience or plainly inappropriate. But this weakness is still overshadowed by his capacity at conciliation and political problem solving and more vitally by his verbal capability. Churchill engineered delicate dispute resolutions over South Africa, Ireland, and social reform in England to name but a few, quickly striding across political boundaries and ideologies and involving himself intimately with those who had the greatest grievance in order to solve the conflict. Coupled with his strong array of communication skills he achieved a political pre-eminence that darkly shadowed his companions.

His oratory and conciliatory skills were allowed to flourish due to the mastery of technical details. Churchill was one of those rare politicians that actually knew what he was talking about. This dedication to lucidity ties in with persuasion and compromise and the knowledge of details leads to flexibility because plans can be made for each situation. Churchill always had three or four contingency plans for every situation. Strategy and vision thus sprung from intelligence and from being able to see the whole picture and from the confidence that one way or another the vision would be achieved.

This vision coupled with creativity gave Churchill adequate resources to enact change and innovation. In political spheres Churchill was light years ahead of his companions in collecting, analysing, and synthesising information at the micro level and relating it to the big picture. His innovation stemmed from patient practicality and discipline and not inspired genius as romantic novels about great change would like us to believe. This vision included fair economic trade and economic liberalism, adequate welfare for the population, peace and democratic governance, classical and scientifically or technically based education, and a powerful security apparatus to combat evil and aggression.

In achieving his aims, and in using his native and educated intelligence Churchill consciously chose to be nobody’s knave. He flaunted his independence, not only in action, but also in flamboyant dress and style. Yet his romantic urges were touched by the humbleness of most people’s lives, but to those at the summit where power corrupts, contracts are broken, lies are purveyed as half-truths, the issue of spirit and mores takes on a different colour. Basically Churchill trusted his own counsel and that of a half-dozen friends. To the rest of the world he looked like a recluse. To those who knew him well, he was defending himself against the often wicked and spiteful attacks of political banditos. Hence sympathy for the mass, trust for the few.

In this regard Churchill was exceptionally callous and rough to friend and foe alike in his early years. But as time tempered and beat down the baser impulses of searing rhetoric, Churchill acquired another skill — that of informal networking and interpersonal persuasion. He became as he aged refreshingly human. However, it was not until the 1930’s when he was in his late 50s and early 60s, that strident verbal missives were shelved for moderate expositions (with some notable exceptions) of the situation at hand, and fair treatment was meted out to friend and foe alike.

As Churchill matured so did his attention to friendship. “If F.E. (Smith), was strong meat and stronger drink, then Churchill in contrast to his public reputation as a ‘domineering’, even ‘rude’, figure, had in the intimacy of personal friendship a quality which is almost feminine in its caressing charm” As F.E. wrote, Churchill had a ‘simplicity which no other public man of the highest distinction possesses.’ He also endeavoured to perform many deeds of goodwill to aid friends and family. It can be summarised by Philip Snowden a long-time Churchill opponent and liberal critic, “Your generosity to a political opponent marks you for ever in my
eyes the ‘great gentleman’ I have always thought you. Had I been in trouble which I could not control myself, there is none to whom I should have felt I could come with more confidence that I should be gently treated.”

A budget of good humour, tact and some considered patience fund the other necessary resources and tools to achieve success. Alone they are unsubstantive. It is better to be dour and effective, than gay and incompetent. Allied to well-developed skills and principles, sensitivity, embedded in the formidable array of humour and tact, provides a potent and efficient tool. About Churchill it is fair to say that he was ambitious and calculating; but not cold and that saved him. As a colleague stated, “His ambition is sanguine, runs in a torrent, and the calculation is hardly more than the rocks or the stump which the torrent strikes for a second…queer, shrewd power of introspection, which tells him his gifts and character are such as will make him boom….He was born a demagogue, and he happens to know it.” Yet ambition without a defining purpose can not only corrupt, but it can also destroy.

A crowning vision is really the linchpin that will attract followers. Most good and great individuals have displayed a pretty consistent approach to the world and a pretty stable world view. Some superficial analysis may suggest that because Churchill changed parties, challenged convention, criticised incompetence and insipidity and usurped obedience, he was a grasping, clawing, malevolent opportunist. If rigid conformity is the sign of good political standing, Churchill was indeed recklessly unpredictable and unreliable. However, the picture of Churchill as a soldier of fortune, an adventurer and a troublemaker was and is incorrect. Strong ethics, values and principles guided his actions. He had little of Lloyd George’s cunning or the well-disguised craftiness of Stanley Baldwin. His decisions might have been unpredictable, but his motives were seldom hard to fathom. Churchill rarely embroiled himself in the base pettiness of political intrigue in part from a distaste of such ignominy, combined as well with a guileless personality.

To the charge of unreliability Churchill retorted that, “To improve is to change. To be perfect is to have changed often.” In actual fact the changes were due to some effort at self improvement, but to a fidelity of what he already was. Churchill was most consistent with his own true north direction when he was the least supportive of his party’s policy. Churchill never could swallow the party line always choosing and deciding for himself. In assessing Churchill’s skill base the following is a reasonable portrait: “Far from changing his views too often, Mr Churchill has scarcely, during a long and stormy career, altered them at all. If anyone wishes to discover his views on the large and lasting issues of our time, he need only set himself to discover what Mr Churchill has said or written on the subject at any period of his long and exceptionally articulate public life, in particular during the years before the First World War: The number of instances in which his views have in later years undergone any appreciable degree of change will be astoundingly small….When biographers and historians come to describe his views…they will find that his opinions on all these topics are set in fixed patterns, set early in life and later only reinforced.”

This historical reality is evidenced when studying Churchill. What drove Churchill in his personal intellectual and political journey’s can also be said to mirror the advance of imperialism in the 19th and 20th centuries . Thus not only did he possess grand skill, he was also a student but more importantly a conscious product of history. In this regard he closely resembles (consciously no doubt) British and world history. Even in his literary works this is reflected. For instance in Churchill’s book, ‘The Story of the Malakand Field Force’, which depicts British soldiery in north-western India at the turn of the 20th century he questioned what motivated men and nations to face great hazards. The principal elements that Churchill discovered were preparation, discipline, vanity and sentiment and he remarked that sentiment was the most important of the group. Churchill believed that civilisation can only march forward if it clings to a vision – a sentiment that ennobles its occupation and galvanises its spirit. Empires fall because the sword begins to dominate the sentiment and the people lose hold of the impulse and spirit that the sentiment contained and made the use of the sword in the first instance appropriate.

This spirit and vision was evident and mature. He commiserated with the poor, the downtrodden or the straggling. Some of his mightiest missions and political forays were instigated on behalf of those who lived lives beyond his comprehension but not his beyond his compassion. Yet here lies a paradox. Within political circles and in the ring of friends and associates he could be extraordinarily blind, politically inept, insensitive and roguish. Or so it appears from a distance. Yet for the great mass of ‘Poor England’ or for the devotion of the Commonwealth nations, tears would be produced, sagas told, and emotion unleashed. The difference is dramatic but crucial.

If we examine for instance his stand on fair economic trade he was malleable to changing circumstance but rather solid in his underlying belief in market forces, with government succouring the unlucky. He left the Conservatives over Fair Trade in 1904, when they put forward a policy of protectionism, anathema to an orthodox Liberal like Churchill. He only returned to the Conservative party in 1924 when undue governmental interference in trade had been expunged from their agenda, and when the political costs of doing so were at a low threshold. Fair trade in the mind of Churchill did not preclude beneficial and justified government involvement to at times, stimulate employment and counteract nefarious foreign practice. For instance by 1908 Churchill had developed a respectable appreciation of contra-cyclical public works feeling that in useful but uncompetitive industries such as afforestation, public departments should be constructed to allow the expansion or contraction of work according to the needs of the labour market, much like the utilisation of an accordion. He was also much taken by the notion of having a governmental body dedicated to intelligence gathering on market conditions and inputting clever designs regarding the balance of trade and the proper use of employment. These concepts were never tried.

Supportive of free or at least fair trade, Churchill throughout his career could never conceal his concern for the effects of such unbridled combat upon the poor man and women. Speaking in a lecture at Oxford in June of 1930 he posited that unencumbered free trade was not at that time working: “The growth of public opinion, and still more of voting opinion, violently and instinctively rejects many features of this massive creed. No one, for instance, will agree that wages should be settled only by the higgling of the market. No one would agree that modern world-dislocation of industry…should simply be met by preaching thrift and zeal to the displaced worker. Few would agree that private enterprise is the sole agency by which fruitful economic activities can be launched or conducted.” Churchill appended to this suspicion of market forces the idea of an economic council, chosen in proportion to parliamentary representation as an agent of economic advice. This concept of an objective economic watchdog was never viably pursued.

These economic doctrines – fair trade and support for the common worker – were strictly consistent with his life long pursuit of social stability, prosperity and opportunity. In wider party politics Churchill was a radical who consistently attacked the Conservatives as a party of wealthy vested intere
sts conspiring to exploit the poor. He had a rough belief in proper mass democracy (though part of him sympathised with the viewpoints of the controversial Nietzche who feared for mass democratisation feeling that the great features of aristocratic or privileged existence would disappear), and most of his actions were ‘de Tocquevillian’. Churchill was fundamentally concerned that there should not be governmental obstruction to the mass of the people realising the benefits that a liberalising democracy could bring into their lives. In 1908 he wrote to Asquith:

“There is a tremendous policy in social organisation. The need is urgent and the moment ripe. Germany with a harder climate and far less accumulated wealth has managed to establish tolerable basic conditions for her people. She is organised not only for war, but for peace. We are organised for nothing except party politics. The Minister who will apply to this country the successful experiences of Germany in social organisation may or may not be supported at the polls, but he will at least have a memorial which time will not deface of his administration.” If we consider the tremendous tasks in which the human race and governments; local, regional, national and hopefully international, will struggle against in the near future then social organisation and re-organisation, probably of a brutal or dislocative nature will not be completed in the current ‘pork and play’ atmosphere in today’s political systems. Politicians engaged in change will need the courage to ignore the polls and do what needs to be done.

Churchill was a master at this, usually getting the House of Commons to agree to his proposals even if he was in a subordinate or even antagonistic position. The skills used to complete such duties were varied. Very rarely did they include threats, bullying, trampling on souls, or the use of political power. Logic, parliamentary procedure, emotional colour and well-researched positions counted as more important. Churchill proposed and acquired the acceptance of the House on a number of far reaching proposals, including;
– Institution of Labour Exchanges and unemployed insurance
– National Infirmity Insurance
– Special state industries such as roads, afforestation
– Modernised poor law (law mandating that children should support their parents)
– State control of the railway
– Compulsory education until age 17

Churchill’s economic beliefs and education though broader and more profound than many politicians were attached to a series of principles. He loathed dependence and esteemed individualism. He was fully in support of laissez-faire and the doctrines of 17th, 18th and 19th century English economics. His faith in Adam Smith, John Locke and Edwardian experience compelled Churchill to espouse his support in the benedictions of unshackled economic exchange. In October of 1902, in a letter to a political colleague while still a member of the Conservative party, Churchill commented that it was necessary by an ‘evolutionary process’ to create a wing of the Conservative party which would either infuse vigour into the entire unit, or allow the formation of a central coalition. Churchill realised as he stated in the letter that his plan would become most important as an incident in or possibly as a herald of the movement, but that it would also move suspicion that he was moved only by mere restless ambition and not substantive issues. He needed a grand theme and found it in the Free Trade debate of 1903-4. Churchill was unable to countenance the stance of the Conservative party in their clamouring for protection and left joining the Liberals on May 31 1904. Allegations of opportunism, deceit and cowardice, rained down upon him as he shifted sides. In a note to a friend Churchill admitted; “(The) Free Trade issue subsides it leaves my personal ambitions naked and stranded on the beach – and they are an ugly and unsatisfactory spectacle by themselves, though nothing but an advantage when borne forward with the flood of a great outside cause.” Indeed without a great cause ambition is a rather repulsive picture.

For Churchill and others liberal ideals as exemplified by the Free Trade question meant more than simply the abolition of protective tariffs. It personifies a whole philosophy of political, social and economic organisation. John Stuart Mill in ‘Principles of Political Economy’ in 1848 developed the ‘Laissez-faire’, concept and every departure from it, unless required by some great good, is a certain evil. This commandment created the key notes of mid-Victorian liberalism: the reliance upon individualism, the establishment of self-respect, and self-reliance, and the organisation of voluntary and co-operative societies to better the plight of the weak, wounded and suffering.

Support for such mantra was rooted in an earlier period of excitable prosperity. Coinciding with the advent of Free Trade in the years 1850-1870, there was an economic boom in the UK. It can be fairly argued that the removal of tariff barriers probably had only a marginal impact on the British economy. Nevertheless, psychologically the advent of free trade was closely associated with entrepreneurial zest and commercial success. It appeared that market forces working within the social and political structure solved the question of English strength, which preoccupied the country from 1820-50.

Churchill knew his economic history well. It moulded and galvanised his political and philosophical beliefs. It shaped his political attitude and formed one of his bedrock principles – free movement of goods and services. This created in his political philosophy a paradox — Churchill was at once a radical and a traditionalist. He was a radical in changing structures and governmental organisations and arcane laws to facilitate the movement of finance and trade on a more fair and free basis. He was also a radical in his determination to raise the general standard of living, economic opportunity and chance for decent education and welfare. He was a traditionalist in his empathy that the productive capitalistic system as the only guaranteed method of sustaining society and providing a nation with the capability to ensure adequate standards of wealth and progress. It must be protected at all costs – vision must be enjoined by the means to protect its vested interests.

In assessing the use of power Churchill’s career and leadership in this regard actually represents Britain’s peculiarity as a Great Power which during its hegemony was formed in the conjunction of three factors: her naval strength, her imperial possessions, and her financial hegemony. Through two stints as First Lord of the Admiralty, Chancellor of the Exchequer and through two World Wars, Churchill devoted the lion’s share of his time and energies to upholding these interlocking causes, making it conspicuously clear in the process that he had no intention of presiding over the liquidation of the British Empire. As Chancellor of the Exchequer Churchill presented 5 budgets (1925-1929). In British history only Pitt, Walpole and Gladstone can equal that record. Though vastly entertaining as pieces of oratory and acting adroitness his budgets adhered as much as it was possible to economic orthodoxy. Many times Churchill was accused of slight of hand sophistry in the compilation of his numbers and in the collection of his tax revenue. However, this allegation has been and could be made with more convincing effect against every other Chancellor in this century. What is more important to note is that Churchill’s orthodoxy underpinned the Victorian notion of Britain’s greatness.

Churchill was a realist and understood power. Power is really to be embraced and used and is in some ways the centre piece of leadership. To ignore it is to perish. Because of his somewhat apolitical view of the world Churchill could discern very clearly the different perspectives on how nations viewed peace and h
ow any destroyer of peace would appear in various forms to different nations. To prevent war and general international dislocation he at times called for zones and regional structures, including World-Grand Alliances. Power and strength were vital: In his words, “Appeasement from strength is magnanimous and noble and might be the surest and perhaps the only path to peace.”

Though primarily remembered as a war-hungry demagogue, Churchill on at least half a dozen occasions defiantly crusaded against the level and purpose of military spending. These personal programs were driven in part by his political position. That is only a small part of the answer. During the 1920’s Churchill felt that military expenditure was too high and should be curbed given the threat of inflation, the spectre of economic dislocation and the vital investments needed in infrastructure and social programs. These economic indicators drove Churchill to proselytise against excessive taxation and to insist on reviews of defence expenditures. It was necessary Churchill felt, to augment the Royal Air Force allotment and decrease the high administrative costs of the army and look suspiciously into the Royal Navy claims of needing more funding. The cabinet agreed with Churchill: “that the Fighting Services should proceed on the assumption that no great war is to be anticipated within the next ten years” although, “provision should be made for the possible expansion of trained units in case of an emergency arising.” Little of the war-mongerer appears in this sentiment though security was never to be imperilled.

Churchill was emphatic that the 10 year rule be reviewed each year. This 10 year dictum uttered in the mid 20’s obviously proved false since in 1936, the Germans seized the Rhineland. Beginning with the rise of Hitler and the stench of his ideology, Churchill began advocating not only a mammoth increase in armament production but also a closer relationship with Russia. Strategy had changed again. This option was proffered from a man who in the early 1920’s had supported the incursion of British soldiers into the heartland of Russia to cleanse it of Bolshevism. Churchill regarded Bolshevism as the lowliest creed and construct of mankind’s civilised history. These adjurations were consistent with his concept of maintaining a balance of power and bargaining from a position of strength, all in the name of effacing and avoiding an evil tumult. It is – and should be – one of the chief reasons for our admiration and support of Churchill that he consistently advocated peace by international understanding and if understanding were to collapse to resist any impingement of freedom by force.

But his political courtship of Russia was based on seemingly obvious and important facts. As Churchill previsioned in the early 30’s a new line of French fortifications established only along the French part of the Rhine would enable Germany to attack France through Belgium and Holland. He knew that Germany would not respect the neutrality of the Low Countries in her desire to rip and tear the French to pieces. He also warned that Poland, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Rumania, Austria and the Baltic’s, were at risk, and that Britain could not detain a German advance into these areas from her current submissive position of weakness. Churchill wanted to station a part of the British fleet in the Baltic to outnumber the German fleet. To achieve measurable, guarded security an alliance with the Bolshies was inevitable, vital and more importantly achievable.

If stronger lines had been followed in the 1930’s World War Two could have been avoided. With a ‘Churchillian’ leadership of the world and vision of power and morality we could have escaped the disgusting slaughter of 70 million people. In a 1945 speech to the combined Belgian Senate and Chamber, Churchill stressed what is still surely relevant in our world today; namely the resistance and prevention of dictator aggression: “If the United States had taken an active part in the League of Nations, and if the League of Nations had been prepared to use concerted force, even had it only been European force, to prevent the re-armament of Germany, there was no need for further serious bloodshed. If the Allies had resisted Hitler strongly in his early stages, even up to his seizure of the Rhineland in 1936, he would have been forced to recoil, and a chance would have been given to the sane elements in German life, which were very powerful especially in the High Command, to free Germany of the maniacal Government and system into the grip of which she was falling. Do no forget that twice the German people, by a majority, voted against Hitler, but the Allies and the League of Nations acted with such feebleness and lack of clairvoyance.”

After the Second World War he continued such pleas arguing in various speeches for France and Germany to bind wounds and for Russia to be a partner with the West in the greater development of a peaceful Europe. When it became obvious that the Soviets intended to challenge if not supplant the West (especially after the communist seizure of power in Czechoslovakia in 1948), than the tone of conciliation turned to a growling of an affronted bulldog as Churchill told American officials, that now is the time, promptly, to tell the Soviets that if they do not retire from Berlin and abandon Eastern Germany, withdrawing to the Polish frontier ‘we will raze their cities’. In his signal ‘Iron Curtain’ speech in Fulton Missouri in 1948 Churchill implored that the UNO must work effectively to prevent another war recognising Russia as a leading nation, remembering the gallantry of its efforts in the last war, and acknowledging its ‘Iron Curtain’ control of Eastern Europe which necessitated the banding and collation of Western strength and might.

It is a complex issue and drives to the heart of politics that so many of us view with revulsion – peace through strength and shifting alliances and geopolitical supporters. To understand such necessities today we need to understand the human animal. In scanning leadership and the great broad stretch and gesture of events, the basic construct of the human animal has to be borne in mind. Churchill constantly reminded his associates of the base fact that we really have not changed genetically in the last 100,000 years. DNA and microbiology are 1 of 2 great frontiers of human discovery in the next generation, (the other is information technology). As advances are made in understanding the human genome, advances must also be made in the way society and the leaders of society are structured and educated.

Churchill’s view of international affairs was pragmatic though not Machiavellian. He had two basic precepts of security — use history as a guide and foster a balance of power between the strongest lands, and ensure that the internal national health was seasoned and keen. Churchill frequently referred to his debt to those who had laboured before himself as he did to Katherine Asquith, on April 5 1929; “How strange it is that the past is so little understood and so quickly forgotten. We live in the most thoughtless of ages. Every day headlines and short views. I have tried to drag history up a little nearer to our own times in case it should be helpful as a guide in present difficulties.”

This enduring commitment to knowledge and of increasing the power, and not the dependency of the layman, both intellectually and politically was the central tenet of Churchill’s political genius. He could combine the new world with the old gleaning the important knowledge from the past, to help shape the institutions of the current and future. To say he was old-fashioned as some critics contend is simplistic. Churchill more than any other figure helped create the modern welfare nation state (though he would be appalled at its size and generosity today), promote peace through strength and ensure that the precarious balance of power between east and
west, that was the only stability guaranteed to mankind for 44 years, was not toppled. Pure motives, unflinching devotion to good, ambition stemming from benign aspirations, all lead to quality. As one commentator explained of Pitt, so it could be ascribed to Churchill: “Pitt desired power, and he desired it, we really believe, from high and generous motives. He was, in the strict sense of the word, a patriot. He saw the national spirit sinking.” In conclusion then, we can state that Churchill matches many of those qualities and skills that define true leadership and greatness. It is these defining values that warrant the assertion that Churchill was indeed this century’s most important catalyst in propelling the world to where we are today. And I have not even discussed in detail his stand against Hitler and totalitarianism.

Thus, as a new millennium dawns I do believe that if we can revise our current system of educating ourselves and our leaders along the principles already evinced; namely, character, skills, intelligence, vision and understanding power, that we can create a proper cadre of leading men and women and that all of society will benefit from the reduction of intrigue and pettiness. Human nature can be changed, however painfully long it will take. In order to understand how we can do this it is often times necessary to understand how the ‘great’ or historically important at any rate went about it. I don’t think that in the 20th century there has been any more dedicated man who defended the Liberalised view of freedom, economic exchange and human dignity, better than Churchill. For this reason, he should be nominated as the most influential man of the past century. And for this reason his skills and weaknesses should be studied and appreciated with especial care.

Making a great name in the history of the whole world is no simple feat. Discover how Winston Churchill stood up to be a leader of one of the world’s biggest nations. Churchill’s life can be readily read through by way of online resources.

Press Releases: The U.S.-Northern Ireland Economic Conference 2010

Press Releases: The U.S.-Northern Ireland Economic Conference 2010
The U.S.-Northern Ireland Economic Conference 2010 Declan Kelly United States Economic Envoy to Northern Ireland  Via Teleconference Washington, DC October 19, 2010 OPERATOR: At this time we’d like to thank all participants for holding and let you know today’s call is being recorded. If you have any objections, you make disconnect at this time. Also, you’ll be on a listen-only mode until the …

Read more on U.S. Department of State

Everything you ever wanted to know about social media marketing (but were afraid to ask)

The live chats at the Vocus webinar a few weeks ago were fantastically lively and informative, with participants answering as well as asking questions that were posed to the scheduled speakers, Deidre Breakenridge, David Meerman Scott, Beth Harte, Lee Odden and Brian Solis. As time was tight, not all the questions were answered, so we thought we’d scoop some up from the logs and try to give some insights.

Q1: How do I increase my Twitter following?

This was a common question, but there’s no quick answer (unless you use a mass-following tool, which might boost your numbers but won’t necessarily give you a worthwhile audience that includes valuable influencers) – it can be a slow build, however, there are ways to make a difference:

Write content that people want to read! Bit obvious, but just spieling out advertising isn’t the tastiest bait. Write interesting and useful articles and blog posts and link to them; create infographics, videos, slideshows and share them; make astute and witty observations; share content by others that you think your followers will find helpful. Give them a reason to follow you and retweet you.
Search for your audience and follow them – if you’re doing the first point well enough, they’re likely to follow you back. Use any of the numerous Twitter applications and search engines to look for relevant people and influencers who would be interested in what you have to say.
Get involved in Twitter chats to connect with your relevant audience – this is a great opportunity to offer advice, opinions and knowledge to key people who may become followers afterwards. Robert Swanwick has compiled a Twitter Chat Master List where you can find the right subject for you.
Find a way to link what you’re saying to topical themes and hashtagged subjects – this gives you a more targeted audience when people search for those terms and keywords.
Finally, give an incentive now and again – run polls, competitions, promotions to engage and reward your loyal followers, and encourage more people to follow you.

Q2: How can I make my blog more effective?

It’s easy to feel that your blog is lost in the webiverse, but there are ways to increase its visibility and boost traffic.

Just like in question 1, content is key – write posts that are informative, useful, interesting and engaging. See this post for a more in-depth guide on how to write a great blog.
Optimise – just like your website, make sure that you are implementing keywords, links and other SEO tactics to ensure that your blog can be found and ranked by search engines. Register with blog directories such as Technorati or PostRank to add to the places you can be searched for, and to keep an eye on your blog metrics.
Network your blog with other social media platforms, like Twitter, Facebook or LinkedIn – link up your RSS feed, or manually link to posts you want to push out there.
Comment on relevant sites and blogs – not with pointless spam directing people to your site, but with genuine, thoughtful comments. If people appreciate what you’re saying, they’ll click through to your blog to see what else you’ve come up with.
Search for other bloggers in your field who you could invite to guest-blog (or blog swap), creating a backlink and an interesting new slant for your blog.
Most importantly, write posts that generate conversation – your audience will be compelled to comment, share, and your traffic will grow.
Distribute: get your posts bookmarked, upload them to relevant sites, copy them to article-sharing sites etc – the more places they can be found, the more they will be read.

Q3: What’s the proper Twitter etiquette on mutual following?

Well, it depends how powerful and influential you are – if you’re such a big shot you’re followed by 20K and only follow one back then good for you, but you won’t be getting much out of the social aspect of Twitter!

You don’t have to follow every person who follows you, but ignoring everyone who tries to interact with you defeats the purpose of Twitter and can be, well, a bit rude. Choose those whose tweets you actually want to read and find useful. If someone’s followed you that you don’t want to add to your following list, then at least send them a “thank you for following” personalised message to show your appreciation. It’s useful to note that you can also add people to lists without having to follow them.

Q4: How do I use YouTube for marketing?

YouTube serves as a standalone search engine that is becoming more and more powerful within social media and SEO. Using it as a marketing tool really depends on your business, your aims and your content, but there are several ways to make use of YouTube as a social media marketing tool:

Set up your own channel, where you can host your videos, link to your website/blog/social media profiles, hold discussions and answer questions.
Use slideshows or infographic videos to back up a blog post or key point.
Give out some personal and local information – show a behind the scenes of your company or location, introduce your staff, give a presentation on something that is important to you and your business.
Document case studies.
Film interviews with key company members, customers, associates etc.
Have some fun – don’t take yourself too seriously (but at the same time, don’t make a total arse of yourself!)
Make instructional and ‘How-To’ videos – these make up a lot of the search content within YouTube, as it’s much easier to learn from watching a demonstration than from reading an explanation.

Once you’ve uploaded a video, share it and distribute it via other social media platforms – embed in your site, your blog, link to it from Twitter and Facebook, add it to Vimeo – the list goes on. Get your content out there!

Q5: How do I measure/monitor the ROI of social media?

This is the big one, and unfortunatley, the answer is not particularly straightforward. The first thing to do is stop trying to fit social media into a traditional sized marketing box. The purpose and results of social media are less tangible than a PPC campaign, or press release launch – social media affects the reach and influence of your company, which in turn will affect its popularity and your website’s traffic, or awareness of your brand, which in turn will affect sales, conversions and profit. So how do you measure engagement?

Firstly, put monitoring tools into place – there are a ton of free tools out there, though you may find that most only cover specific areas of the metrics you are after, so you will need to use several simultaneously, or different tools for different analytics.

T o use these tools effectively, you need to have an aim or goal in mind – what are you trying to measure or track? The number of followers or fans is not the bottom line – you need to look at how those followers are interacting with you, whether they are spreading your message, whether they are driving traffic to your site and more. Focus on an objective and measure the appropriate metrics. Here are some examples of aspects you might want to keep tabs on:

Site hits
Increased time on site
Sharing of your content
RSS subscribers
Image/video views
Number of bookmarks

For example, you’ve written a blog post on your business’ new product – you publish it, distribute it, linking to the relevant page on your site. Now you need to track its progress. In this case, you’d want to look at how many click-throughs you get to the product landing page, how much new site traffic you receive, whether people are sharing this information amongst their friends. Monitor these aspects through each of the social platforms you publish the information on – and from there you will be able to see how social media affects the number of conversions/sales from each area.

Q6: How do I show the value of social media to my boss/uncertain executives?

Another popular question, especially for companies just starting out with social media marketing. Often, businesses, or those working above marketers, don’t see the instant results of a social media presence (or, as in the point above, are not receiving targeted analytics to prove its value).

First, gather information on how competitors and other companies in your field are utilising social media – see what works, how they’re interacting, and if it’s having an impact on their brand. If you have no social media presence, chances are that someone out there is talking about you (or your line of business) anyway – go and research and see what questions people are asking, what problems they’re coming up against and what they want from you.

Second, find out where your customers are, and where you should be – in which social media community should you be making a presence for yourself? If your audience are big Twitter communicators, get talking to them; if they loiter around YouTube, upload some videos and get comments and views. Find your niche and get settled in it.

Third, take an example from question 5 above, and show your execs some hard facts and figures – and explain the power of resonance involved in social media, how it can strengthen your brand, make valuable connections with customers and act as a fantastic customer service platform.

Q7: What’s the best way to use social media for a Non-Profit organisation?

I think initial supposition is that it’s harder for a non-profit organisation to market themselves, because they are not providing a service or a product in retail terms. Contrary to this assumption, I believe that non-profits actually can do exceptionally well with social media. The very nature of social media interaction connects likeminded people for things they believe in. Social media is emotional, we participate because we want to, because we are moved or amused by something. Non-profit organisations can take this opportunity to promote their work, their aims and the issues they deal with and gain support, publicity and awareness.

A few places to start:

Assuming your organisation already has a website, add a blog, on which you can post content in a more conversational style, on issues and subjects that encourage comment and discussion. For example, some non-profit blogs document the progress of individuals who are fundraising by participating in a sponsored event, or post pictures and videos of success stories and company events.
Facebook accounts have the option of creating a page or a group for your organisation – for this, a page is generally more appropriate, because it enables you to add more structure to the profile, whereas a group might be more useful for a specific goal or issue you are trying to gain support for.
Twitter is a fantastic place for conversation, and raising awareness. Hashtags can easily organise a subject, and recently have been used to attract attention to issues which require donations and assistance, for example many tweeters are adding the hashtag #Pakistan to tweets which include a link to one of the various donation site for the Pakistan flood victims.
Make the most of multimedia and sites like YouTube, Flickr to broaden your message and distribute different types on content.

Q8: Where do I find the time to do all this?!

Well, apparently there’s this hot tub that’s also a time machine… Or, you could just make use of those ‘time management skills’ that are on your CV and get organised.

Focus on one thing at a time – there’s a tendency and a temptation to try to stick your fingers in all the pies when it comes to social media, since there are so many options, so many offshoots and avenues to explore. Target an objective, plan your action and monitor carefully rather than running around madly trying to connect with everyone, everywhere, all at once.
Set realistic goals. Choose a few things that have the highest priority for any particular day. Put the rest aside and concentrate on achieving your immediate goals. It’s easy to get overwhelmed and distracted by the fast-paced realtime world of social media.
Schedule ahead of time. I’m a big fan of Hootsuite for pre-composing tweets and facebook posts, squirreling them away and schedule them to be posted later (there are other social media network options for multiple postings). Then you can concentrate on other distribution and interaction.
Target the most active times for your particular community – look into a monitoring tool and find out when is the best time to post, to join a discussion, to comment and make yourself available at that time – it could be just one hour in a whole week that makes a big impact to your network.
Form a routine. Everyone and every business is going to have different needs, but as you get more proficient within social media, you will start to find a groove, and see how best to organise your time. Having a routine makes things more manageable, makes you more efficient, and rather than making you stuck into a rigid schedule, it actually makes it easier to deviate if you need to, because you know where you left off and where you need to pick up to keep on track.

I hope these were helpful for those of you starting out in social media, or feeling a bit lost in the networking world! If you have any questions about social media marketing, SEO, PPC, web analytics or any other aspect of internet marketing, please let us know and we’ll try to keep posting Q&A articles like this regularly.

Either leave a comment below (or on any other blog post that you have questions about), send us a tweet @ikroh, or post something on our Facebook wall. We’d love to hear from you and we’d be happy to answer your questions.

Ikroh is an award winning UK SEO company, committed to 100% ethical search and passionate about our clients’ success online. Our internet marketing services include: SEO, PPC, social media marketing and web analytics.